University of Edinburgh
 

Deaf Plus: Teaching Deaf Children who are Dyslexic

Thursday 3 May 2007

Dyslexia: Assessment, Teaching and Learning: Implications for Practice

Dr Gavin Reid

Dyslexia as a Difference

  • Understanding Dyslexia
  • Barriers to learning
  • Task and expectations
  • Social and Emotional Factors
  • Self-Managing Learning

Enhancing learning: independence, control, active, achievable = success

Emotional development
Curriculum
Expectations
Learning style

Acknowledge the differences - Differences not difficulties

Barriers to learning

  • Differences are personal
  • Assessment is dynamic
  • Intervention is educational
  • Understanding is scientific

Understanding dyslexia

Key points

The degree and the impact of dyslexia on the child can vary according to the:

  • nature of the task
  • and the nature of the learning context.

Principal difficulties Principal difficulties relate to literacy - but children with dyslexia can also show other difficulties relating to

  • memory,
  • organisation
  • processing speed
  • co-ordination

"I like doing memory strategies because I always forget"

  • recognition of learning processes in intervention
  • need to understand the task
  • differentiation and learning styles

"Languages are hard because everybody has finished I’ve just started and I have difficulty getting organised"

  • Dyslexia can be seen within a continuum from mild to severe.
  • Dyslexia is a term that can be easily misunderstood

Key Points

  • It is important to recognise the need to boost the self-esteem of children
  • It is important to recognise the strengths shown by children and adults with dyslexia

Major Theories of Dyslexia

1. The Phonological Deficit

2. The Double Deficit Hypothesis

3. Magnocellular Deficit Hypotheses

4. The Automatisation Deficit Hypothesis

5. The Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis

Dyslexia definition Reid (2003)
"dyslexia is a processing difference experienced by people of all ages, often characterised by difficulties in literacy, it can affect other cognitive areas such as memory, speed of processing, time management, co-ordination and directional aspects.

There may be visual and phonological difficulties and there is usually some discrepancy in performances in different areas of learning. It is important that the individual differences and learning styles are acknowledged since these will effect outcomes of learning and assessment.

It is also important to consider the learning and work context as the nature of the difficulties associated with dyslexia may well be more pronounced in some learning situations" (Reid 2003).

Key Points

Children with dyslexia can show different characteristics and therefore their needs should be addressed on an individual basis.

Key points in a definition

  • processing difference
  • can affect cognitive areas
  • may be visual and phonological difficulties
  • discrepancy in performances in different areas of learning.
  • important that individual differences and learning styles are considered
  • important to recognise the importance of the learning and work context
    (Reid 2003)

"Sometimes I feel very confused" Tom aged 10

I asked my mum "Am I dyslexic?"
She said "yes"
I said "cool"

Build a bridge

Need a structure to understand the task

1. Make a list of the materials you will need

2. Then have a look at the book in the library on bridges

3. Decide the kind of bridge you want to build. Make a list of three possible types of bridges

4. Go outside and survey to decide where the bridge will be built – give three reasons for this.

5. Have a look at colours and styles and decide if you need any more materials

6. Make a list of each of the tasks and check each after completion.

Reflection: what did you find difficult ; what did you find easy?

Assessment Criteria

Difficulties -

  • decoding
  • speed of processing
  • short /long term memory
  • reading fluency
  • automaticity
  • metacognition
  • syntax
  • organisation

Discrepancies

  • decoding and listening comprehension
  • different subject areas of the curriculum

Differences

  • learning style
  • environmental preferences for learning

decoding and comprehension

List of non-words

  • gare
  • duncle
  • ract
  • gar
  • bace
  • recide
  • kaces
  • gade
  • skare
  • chape
  • skar
  • kute
  • gite
  • fedge
  • giit
  • bage

Differences

Methods of Processing Information

  • Speed of Processing Information
  • Strategies
  • Learning Styles

Observation

  • Organisation
  • Attention
  • Sequencing
  • Interaction
  • Self-concept
  • Learning preferences
  • Independent learning

Learning Environment

  • Classroom design
  • Recognise cultural diversity
  • Individual environmental preferences – music , movement, lighting
  • Student sense of ownership

Environmental factors

  • light
  • sound
  • design
  • general ambience
  • furniture
  • layout

learning styles

The more you can see it, hear it, say it and do it, the easier it is to learn.

“It doesn’t take much of you to be a success. It takes all of you!”

  • 20% of what we read
  • 30% fo what we hear
  • 40% of what we see
  • 50% of what we say
  • 60% of what we do
  • 90% of what we see, hear, say and do

Task and expectations

  • Planning –task development - Language, spacing, visuals
  • Discuss goals and expectations with the learner - realistic achievements
  • Opportunities for self monitoring, self questioning, reflection
  • Learning style
  • Expectations, outcomes, success.

Differentiation - Individual Needs

note: The need for some inset on this topic was identified in the SWOT analysis I carried out as part of the initial audit of SEN provision in the school. CoP DfES SEN 2002 5:7 states that all schools will differentiate – and that this applies to all pupils and not only as part of the SEN provision.

The opportunity to give this presentation arises at the termly staff meeting. Location: school library, whole staff present (60) sitting in comfortable chairs. Technical support needed for powerpoint presentation.

The need for some inset on this topic was identified in the SWOT analysis I carried out as part of the initial audit of SEN provision in the school. CoP DfES SEN 2002 5:7 states that all schools will differentiate – and that this applies to all pupils and not only as part of the SEN provision.
The opportunity to give this presentation arises at the termly staff meeting. Location: school library, whole staff present (60)

Differentiation is the difference between where a pupil is now and where he or she has the potential to be.

"Why is a frog's tongue like it is?"

They eat insects. They catch the insects with their tongue. A frog’s tongue has a sticky substance on it and this helps them to catch insects. The tongue is quite long and they flick it out suddenly. This takes the insect by surprise. The insects are helpless and paralysed by the substance. But the frog has to be quick to catch the insects. That is why a frog’s tongue is like it is!

Differentiate for Dyslexia

Memory

  • Organisation - prioritising
  • Different methods of note taking
  • Headings and sub-headings
  • Reflection and revision - chunking, visualise, make connections,
  • Opportunities for discussion

Top Ten Memory Tips - Personalise

1. Chunk
2. Organise
3. Plan
4. Visualise
5. Connect
6. Imagine
7. Repeat
8. Re-enact
9. Understand
10. Discuss

My - Mercury
Very - Venus
Energetic - Earth
Mother - Mars
Just - Jupiter
Served - Saturn
Us - Uranus
Nine - Neptune
Pizzas - Pluto
Swiftly - Sedna

  • Recognise - Identify own preferred way of learning.
  • Revise - Use revision plan and timetable.
  • Review - Ensure understanding and retention in long-term memory.
  • Recall - Practise your understanding and knowledge.
  • Reflect - Use reflective questions such as why and how - think aloud.

Planning to make the difference

1. Identify topic and relevant levels and learning targets for the class

2. Plan presentation and reinforcement activities according to:

  • sort of learning required to achieve targets
  • learning skills required to cope with task
  • language form and quantity of instructions
  • availability of resources and materials
  • classroom organisation & grouping
  • availability of support

3. Consider different recording/outcomes/responses

4. Consider different, monitoring, recording & assessment strategies.

Is there a mismatch? Where can we make a difference? Tasks, Resources, Styles, Groups?

metacognitive cycle

Learning Differences

  • Can’t Do!
  • Keep on task
  • Finish
  • Work with others
  • Share
  • Stick to rules

The Feeling Thermometer - Identify the child's comfort zone.

Reflection and Action

  • What have I learnt that has been most useful to me?
  • What has made me think differently?
  • What do I not fully understand?
  • What would I like to know more about?
  • The things I would like to take away and put into action are…

The Dendrite Song

Use your dendrites,
Use your dendrites,
To connect throughout your brain
Take in info, analyse it,
Grow some new ones
Unrestrained.

Stimulation
Is what the brain needs
To make dendrites stretch and grow.
New connections
Make us smarter
In what we think and what we know.

Axons send out
Neurotransmitters
To the dendrites all around
Across the synapse
Jumps the impulse
New ideas can now abound.

Use your dendrites,
Use your dendrites,
To connect throughout your brain
Take in info, analyse it,
Grow some new ones
Unrestrained.

Dyslexia as a Difference

  • Understanding dyslexia
  • Identification & assessment
  • Major theories
  • Learning process
  • Learning styles
  • Managing learning

dyslexia and inclusion

learning styles and inclusion

100 ideas

gavin reid books

gavin reid books

Further details

email: gavin.reid@ed.ac.uk
website:www.gavinreid.co.uk