University of Edinburgh
 

Moving on from School: challenges for deaf pupils, their families and professionals

Presented on Wednesday 28 September 2005

School-leaving - a time for active decision-making

Cathy Howieson
Centre for Educational Sociology University of Edinburgh

  • Changing context of school-leaving and young people's transitions
  • Trends in attitudes to decision-making and careers guidance
  • Government promotion of an enterprise culture
  • What are the implications for deaf students?

Young people's transitions

  • Decision-making: within wider process of transition from initial education to adult working life
  • Enormous changes in recent decades:
    • longer, more complex and multi-stage transitions
    • wider options and greater “choice”
    • greater uncertainty and risk
  • In late 70s/early 80s, norm for most young people to leave school at the end of the compulsory stage and enter employment
  • Norm now to stay on at school (around 70%)
  • Increase in participation in HE (50% approx)

Percentage of under 21 year olds entering HE 1983-84 to 2003-04

Percentage of under 21 year olds entering HE 1983-84 to 2003-04

Active decision-making and choice

  • Policies to give young people more responsibility and "ownership" of own career choices
  • Idea of career decision-making as on-going process and need to develop career management skills
  • Move away from young people as passive recipients of careers information and guidance eg end of "blanket interviewing"
  • Careers Scotland's strategic aim: "equip individuals with the skills to plan their career throughout their working lives"
  • Also related to idea of "consumers" in an education and employment "market"

Enterprise in education

  • Government emphasis on development of enterprising attitudes, skills and behaviour
  • Key benefits of "Enterprise in Education" for young people include:
    • confidence
    • self-esteem
    • self-motivation
    • willingness to take risks
    • determination to succeed
    • self-reliance
    • self-management
    • using initiative
  • Careers education and work experience now incorporated under "Enterprise in Education"
  • Ambitious, Excellent Schools/a Curriculum for Excellence (3-18)
    • confident individuals
    • more out-of-school hours opportunities including 1 residential experience for every pupil

Work experience and part-time jobs

What pupils thought they had learned from Education for Work provision (WE)

What pupils thought they had learned from Education for Work provision

Work experience and part-time jobs

What young people thought they had gained from part-time work

What young people thought they had gained from part-time work

  • Parents: 83% of young people should have a part-time job
  • Students with a disability: less likely to have had a part-time job (S6: 31% vs 17% never)

Common issues

  • Complexity and range of potential options
  • Levels of confidence, maturity and ability to access information and services or act as a consumer
  • Ability of parents/carers (and others) to support and advise given rapidly changing environment
  • Message: be enterprising and risk failure but
    o competitive environment and pressure to succeed (eg; HE)
    o schools removing risk (fear of accidents, litigation)
  • Changes to the guidance system
  • Changes to the Careers Service