University of Edinburgh
 

Teaching Braille to Pupils in Mainstream Classrooms

Presented on Tuesday 13 January 2009

Blank assessment forms

Learning Media Assessment Form 1

General Student Information

Student
Birth date
Age
Grade/placement
School

Components of learning media assessments conducted

  • Use of sensory channels
  • Selection of general learning media
  • Selection of literacy media
    • Initial decision on literacy medium
    • Continuing assessment - general
    • Continuing assessment - selection of print media
  • LMA for student with additional disabilities

Date(s) of learning media assessment

Evaluator(s)

Presence of additional disabilities

  • Motor impairment
  • Cognitive disability
  • Other sensory disability
  • Other disabilities

For students with established literacy skills

Primary literacy medium
Secondary literacy media

Learning Media Assessment Form p2

Information on eye condition

Date of most recent:

Ophthalmological examination
Clinical low vision evaluation
Functional vision evaluation

Cause of Visual Impairment

Age at onset
Visual fields

Near acuity Right eye Left eye

Both eyes

Without correction      
With correction      
With low vision device      
Near device(s) used      
Distance acuity      
Without correction      
With correction      
With low vision device      
Distance device(s) used      

Stability of visual condition (Stable) (Deteriorating)
Visual functioning: (Stable) (Fluctuating)

Possibility of secondary visual impairment(s)

Additional general information

Learning Media Assessment Form p3

Summary

Findings of learning media assessment

Sensory channels:
Primary
Secondary

General learning media:
Visual
Tactual
Auditory

Literacy media:
Primary medium
Secondary media

Instructional implications

  • Type of literacy programme:
  • Conventional literacy programme (for academic student)
    • Pre-reading or readiness programme
    • Formal literacy programme
  • Functional literacy programme (for student with additional disabilities)
  • Other communication programme (for student with additional disabilities who is functioning at a level such that a conventional or functional literacy programme is not now appropriate).

Implications of:
Prognosis
Additional disabilities

Literacy objectives
1.
2.
3.

Learning media assessment Form 2

Student
Setting/Activity
Date
Observer

Observed behaviour Sensory channel

Observed behaviour Sensory channel
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A
___________________________________________________ V T A

Probable primary channel:
Probable secondary channel:

Learning media assessment Form 3

General learning media checklist

Student
Date
Evaluator

Distance

Use of vision Use of touch Use of hearing Learning Materials Use of vision Use of touch Use of hearing Teaching materials
V -   Pictures V -   Pointing
V -   Alphabet strips V -   Gestures
V -   Wall clocks V -   Facial expressions
V -   Calendar V -   Demonstration
V -   Felt board V -   Modelling
- - A Sounds - - A Oral instructions
V -   Timeline - - A Verbal prompts
V -   Number - - A Verbal descriptions
V - A Videos - - A Questioning
V T A etc V T A etc

Notes

Near checklist would include pictures, toys, clay, paint, puzzles, real objects, money, calculators, globe, charts, measuring devices, etc. For Teaching methods: pointing, gestures, facial expressions, demonstrations, modelling and prompts/guidance.

Learning media assessment Form 4

Student
Date
Evaluator

Yes No N/A Behaviour
      Listens to and enjoys when others read.
      Notes likenesses and differences in sounds or spoken words.
      Speaks in connected sentences.
      Notes likenesses and differences in familiar objects visually and/or tactually.
      Tells a story about a recent personal event or experience.
     

Demonstrates interest in pictures and/or objects associated with stories or books.

      Completes sentences in a book with a repeated pattern (such as "I'll huff and I'll puff and ...)
      Relates personal experiences to characters or events in stories.
      Acts out or re-tells stories after listening to them.
      Demonstrates interest in drawing or scribbling.
      Scribbles (or 'writes') and then 'reads' back the message.
      Associates signs in the home or community with important events (such as the golden arches mean 'time to eat').
      Says the alphabet with fair accuracy.
      Attempts to write his or her name.
      Notes likenesses and differences in words when presented in print or braille.
      Recognises name or simple words in print or braille.

Learning media assessment Form 6

Initial selection of literacy medium

Student
Date
Evaluator

Section 1: Use of sensory information

Task Primarily visual Primarily tactual / other Comments / Observations
Recognition of others V T/O  
Initiation of reaching response V T/O  
Exploration of toy or object V T/O  
Discrimination of likenesses and differences in objects/toys V

T/O

 
Identification of objects V T/O  
Confirmation of object identification V T/O  
Use of visual motor/fine motor skills V T/O  
Interest in pictures V T/O  
Interest in books V T/O  
Interest in scribbling/writing V T/O  
Identification of names/simple words V T/O  

 

Section II Working distances and size preferences

Identification of objects:

Accurate visual identification of objects: object size / object distance

Accurate tactual identification of objects: object size

Normal visual working distances:

Classroom materials (such as wall clocks, calendars)

Reading/looking at pictures

Writing/drawing/colouring

Additional observations (including implications of visual condition and additional disabilities):

 

Learning media assessment Form 6

Continuing assessment of literacy media

Student
Primary reading medium
Secondary media
Date
Evaluator

Additional information on visual functioning Comments and observations

Is current information available from functional vision evaluations? Summarise.

 
Is current information available form ophthalmological examinations? Summarise.  
Is current information available from clinical low vision evaluations? Summarise.  
Does available information indicate a change in visual functioning? Yes No
Reading efficiency. Summarise the information:    
Current grade placement    
Results of the informal reading inventory (in student's primary reading medium) Grade Rate
Independent level (≥90% comprehension)    
Instructional level (≥75% comprehension)    
Frustration level (<75% comprehension)    
Reading of content materials at grade placement Comp Rate
Science    
Social studies    
Other    
Does the student read with adequate comprehension? Yes No
Does the student read at a sufficient rate? Yes No
Does the student read at a sufficient rate and with adequate comprehension in order to complete academic tasks with success? Yes No
Academic achievement    
Is the student able to accomplish academic tasks in the current medium/media with success? Yes No
Are time requirements to complete academic tasks reasonable in comparison to peers without visual impairments? Yes No
Handwriting    
Is the student able to read his/her own handwriting effectively? Yes No
Is handwriting a viable and effective mode of written communication? Yes No
Literacy Tools    
Does the student have the repertoire of literacy tools (such as sighted readers, slate and stylus) to meet current educational needs? Yes No
Does teh student hae adequate skills in use of technology to meet current educational needs? Yes No
Does the student have the repertoire of literacy tools necessary to achieve future educational and/or vocational goals? Yes No
Does the student have adequate skills in use of technology to achieve future educational and vocational goals.? Yes No

Factors to be considered by the educational team: (list)

Literacy Tools Inventory

Key I = Uses tool independently
X = Needs instruction and practice in use of tool

Visual

Traditional

  • standard print materials
  • large print materials
  • low vision devices
    • non-optical - near
    • non-optical - distance
    • optical - near
    • optical distance
  • standard paper
  • bold lined paper
  • signature guide
  • other writing guides
  • print as supplement to braille

Technology

  • standard computer monitor
  • large computer monitor
  • enlarged print on screen
  • inkprint printer
  • keyboarding skills

Computer applications

  • wordprocessing
  • spreadsheets
  • databases
  • telecommunications

Tactual

Traditional

  • braille materials
  • braille writer
  • slate and stylus
  • typewriter
  • signature guide
  • paper line guide
  • braille as supplement to print

Technology

  • electronic braille notetaker
  • cassette braille device
  • braille remote terminal device
  • braille embosser
  • keyboarding skills

Computer applications

  • wordprocessing
  • spreadsheets
  • databases
  • telecommunications

Auditory

Traditional

  • aural readng (from recording)
  • cassette/CD/Daisy books
    • leisure reading
    • textbooks
    • dictionary
    • encyclopaedia
    • other
  • reader
  • radio reading service
  • cassette recorder for notes

Technology

  • synthesised speech

Computer applications

  • wordprocessing
  • spreadsheets
  • databases
  • telecommunications