University of Edinburgh

Understanding the diagnosis: Childhood visually impairing conditions

Presented on Thursday 1 November 2007

Quick overview of Types and Causes Visual Impairment

Dr Andrew Blaikie, Consultant Ophthalmologist, Fife

How many children with VI?

  • Prevalence at least 20 per 10 000
  • In Scotland 1 000 000 children U16
  • Theoretically over 2000 children with VI

What are the causes of VI?

primary causes

Anatomical Site

anatomical site

Additional Disabilities

additional disabilities

Additional Disabilities & Anatomical Site

types of field loss

Characteristics of children with VI

  • Brain main cause
  • Have complex forms of VI
  • Tend to have other additional disabilities
  • Communication difficulties

For both reasons challenging to assess and understand what is really going on

Visual Acuity

visual acuity

visual acuity

Timing of cause of VI


visual acuity





  • Brain
  • Additional Disabilities
  • Challenging
  • Often not registered/notified