The Role of Vision in Learning

Presented on Friday 7 November 2008

Perceptual Aspects of Reading

Nadia Northway

Perceptual Apects of Vision

Investigate how the brain uses visual information or is affected by visual information.

visual fields

Meares-Irlen / Visual Stress

What is it?

Pattern and flicker sensitivity. Triggered by 3 things:

1. Patterns or stripes
2. Flicker from lights or VDU
3. Glare from light sources

NB everyone can experience visual stress if conditions are right
??Link with reading



Current understanding of MIS


Intuitive Overlays/ Coloured lenses


Appearance of text


Confirming diagnosis



Treatment- Coloured overlays and Lenses

BV anomaly

Treatment - Orthoptic treatment and specialised glasses

Why do words move?

Visual Perceptual Assessment

Assesses seven areas of visual perception including visual memory and visual sequential memory.assessment plates

dyslexic scan

Visual Perceptual Difficulties

Visual Discrimination


visual discrimination

Visual Memory

Purpose - ability to remember a single object or shape.

16 plates (4-13) , 12 plates 13>

If poorly developed- problems developing sight word vocabulary, difficulty with spelling - will not see that word is incorrectly written, difficulty copying - slow and must look up and down a lot.

visual memory

Visual Spatial Relationships

spatial relationships

Visual Form Constancy

form constancy

Visual Sequential Memory

Purpose - to identify a sequence of shapes.Sequence increases from 2- 9 shapes.

Timed task-

sequential memory

sequential memory

Figure Ground

figure ground

figure ground

Visual Closure

visual closure

visual closure

Testing method

Frostig Developmental Test


The DTVP can be administered individually or in groups.

It consists of 41 tasks arranged in order of increasing difficulty on demonstration cards and is designed to evaluate the child's visual skills in the following areas: eye-motor coordination (drawing continuous straight, curved, or angular shapes); figure-ground perception (detecting embedded figures); constancy of shape (distinguishing common geometric shapes); position in space (identifying reversed position); and spatial relations (connecting dots to form shapes and patterns).

Test results are evaluated in relation to standard first-grade reading skills.

Raw scores for each subtest are converted to age scores and scaled scores. The scaled scores for all five subtests are then combined for a total test score, which is divided by the child's age to produce a perceptual quotient. Guidelines are provided for scores considered necessary to first-grade readiness.

While the DTVP can be an indicator of learning disabilities, the test by itself is not a definitive indicator of learning disorders, nor do high scores on it rule them out.

Young children may need more than one session to complete the test, which has also been adapted for the hearing-impaired and non-English-speaking children.