University of Edinburgh

The Role of Vision in Learning

Presented on Friday 7 November 2008

Letter reversals

Nadia Northway

  • Normal to reverse letters up to age 7
  • Beyond this age difficulty with development of spatial and phonological processing
  • Why do children and adults confuse certain letters?

Phonological Discrepancy

  • Auditory discrimination may not allow the reader to discriminate between 'b' and 'd'.
  • Speech and language difficulty may not allow child to feel difference.
  • Auditory imbalance.

Visual Spatial Relationships

  • Purpose - to determine if patient can see odd shape out - odd shape has been rotated.
  • If poorly developed - possible b and d confusion, difficulty with writing, spotting written errors.

visual discrimination

visual sequential memory

visual relationships

figure ground

b and d difficulties

b and d difficulties


b and d difficulties

new neural routes

b and d difficulties