University of Edinburgh

Deaf Plus a look at the learning implications of 'additional difficulties' - February 2006


Bloom, Ylana
Object symbols:
a communication option.
North Rocks Press, 1990

Bradley, Helen & Snow, Bob
Making Sense of the world:
a guide for carers working with people who have combined sensory and learning disabilities.
SENSE Scotland, 1994
ISBN 0951075640

Dale, F J
Stimulation guide:
a sourcebook of suggestions and activities for multi-sensory impaired children and others with developmental difficulties.
Woodhead Faulkner, 1990
ISBN 0859416305
A useful sourcebook of suggestions and activities aimed at increasing the physical and psychological development of multi-sensory impaired children.

Fortnum, H; Davis, A; Butler, A and Stevens, J.
Health service implications for changes in aetiology and referral patterns of hearing-impaired children in Trent 1985-1993. Report to Trust Health.
Nottingham/Sheffield: MRC Institute of Hearing Research, 1996.

Goold, Louise; Borbilas, Phyllis; Clarke, Annette; Kane, Carol
Addressing the communication needs of the individual with significant impairments : an ideas kit.
North Rocks Press, 1993
ISBN 0949050032

Goold, Louise & Hummell, Jill
Supporting the receptive communication of individuals with significant multiple disabilities: selective use of touch to enhance comprehension.
North Rocks Press, 1993
ISBN 0949050040.

Marschark, Marc
Raising and educating a deaf child.
Oxford University Press, 1997
ISBN 0195094670.
This book has a section on 'Intelligence, achievement and creativity' [pp151-165] and chapter on 'Mental health in deaf children and adults” [pp177-181].

Marschark Marc & Spencer, Patricia Elizabeth
Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language and education.
Oxford University Press, 2003
ISBN 0195149971.
A wide-ranging work with contributions from experts in various specialisms.  Section VII Cognitive correlates and consequences of deafness. 

Miner, Ilene & Cioffi, Joe
Usher syndrome in the school setting.
Helen Keller National Center, nd.
A guide to children with Usher syndrome where children are typically born deaf and become progressively visually impaired.

Morris, Jenny
That kind of life? Social exclusion and young disabled people with high levels of support needs.
Scope, 2001
ISBN 0946828814
Reports on the direct experiences of 44 young people with high levels of physical, sensory and/or cognitive impairment. Their powerful messages have major implications for the current policy agenda and show what needs to be done to combat social exclusion.

Further and higher education choices for people with Usher.

Sense, 1999

Stiefel, Dorothy H
"Madness" of Usher's.
Business of Living Publications, 1991
ISBN 1879518066 
Coping with vision and hearing loss.

Wyman, Rosalind
Making sense together: practical approaches to supporting children who have multisensory impairments.
Souvenir Press, 2000
ISBN 0285635107


British Deaf Association (BDA) & SENSE
"Oh really you have Usher?": a British Sign Language video on Usher syndrome.
BDA/SENSE, 1995.
Duration 30 mins.

Chen, Deborah
What can baby hear? auditory tests and interventions for infants with multiple disabilities.
Paul H Brookes, 1996
ISBN 1557663106
Duration: 30 minutes. Accompanied by a Viewer's guide

Articles & Chapters

Bailly, D; De Lenclave, M; Lauwerier, L
Hearing impairment and psychopathological disorders in children and adolescents: review of recent literature. L'Encephale: Revue de Psychiatrie Clinique, Biologique et Therapeutique 2003, Vol 29 (4), p329-337

Clibbens, J; Powell, G; Atkinson, E
Strategies for achieving joint attention when signing to children with down's syndrome
. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 2002 Vol 37 (3), p309-323
Explores strategies for using sign language with children who have Down's syndrome.

Fortnum, H M, Marshall, D H, Bamford, J M and Summerfield, A Q.
Hearing impaired children in the UK: education setting and communication approach. Deafness and Education International 2002, Vol 4 (3), p123-141.
Explores the communication choices and educational settings for children who are deaf taking into account other variables.

Hadjikakou, Kika
Deaf children with additional disabilities in Cyprus.
International Special Education Conference "Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity?" Inclusive and Supportive Education Congress, 1st - 4th August 2005 Glasgow, Scotland
Looks at the diagnosis and services for deaf children who have additional disabilities in Cyprus.
 Available at:

Mauk, Gary W and Mauk, Pamela P. 
Compounding the challenge: Young deaf children and learning disabilities.  Perspectives in Education and Deafness Nov-Dec 1993, Vol 12 (2), p12-18.
Describes screening, diagnosis and assessment of deaf children with additional disabilities and outlines some of the problems faced by these students.

McCracken, Wendy 
Deaf Children with disabilities, in Gregory, Susan ... [et al] 
Issues in deaf education
David Fulton, 1998
ISBN 1853465127

Morgan, Ann & Vernon, McCay
Guide to the diagnosis of learning disabilities in deaf and hard of hearing children and adults. American Annals of the Deaf July 1994, Vol 139 (3), p358-370.  Suggests guidelines and tests to be used to identify learning disabilities in deaf children and adults.

Van Vuuren, E
The deaf pupil with learning disabilities.
International Congress on Education of the Deaf, Tel Aviv, Israel 16-20 July 1995. 
Full text available from ERIC:
Explores to what extent deficiencies in communication skills affect the screening of deaf students for learning disabilities and describes the phenomenon of learning disability in students who are deaf.

Vernon, McCay
Fifty years of research on the intelligence of deaf and hard of hearing children: a review of literature and discussion of implications. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education Summer 2005, Vol 10 (3), p225-231
Classic paper from the 1960s reprinted to celebrate the journal's tenth anniversary. This paper was one of the first to challenge the perceived intellectual inferiority of Deaf people.

Waite, Laura
"I still can't understand" assisting people with learning disabilities with sight and hearing problems to access information. Focus January 2006, Issue 43, p9-16
Advice for people working with people who have learning disabilities and who also may be deaf and/or visually impaired to improve their access to diagnosis and information.


Sex Education

Aitken, S and Millar, S
Listening to children with communication support needs
Sense Scotland, and CALL Centre (2002)

Atkinson, D, Gingell, A and Martin, J
I have the right to know - a course on sexuality and personal relationships for people with learning difficulties
BILD Publications (1997)

Brandenburg, S
'Sex Education, who is limited? Knowledge, skills and feelings of both parties' in Sex Education and Young People with visual impairment, proceedings from conference 25 March 1998, Scottish Sensory Centre, University of Edinburgh.

Bunck, D
'Guidelines for sex education for the deafblind' in proceedings from Dbl European Conference, Warwick 1989.

Carson, D
'Legality of responding to the sexuality of a client with profound learning disabilities' in Mental Handicap, Vol 20, June 1992, BIMH Publications.

Colville, M D
Signs of s sexual nature
Cheshire Society for the Deaf (1985)

Craft, A
'Mental Handicap and Sexuality; Issues for individuals with a mental handicap, their parents and professionals' in Mental Handicap and Sexuality: Issues and Perspectives
Tunbridge Wells: Costello (1987)

Downs, C and Craft A
'Sexuality and profound and multiple impairment' in Tizard Learning Disability Review, Volume 1, Issue 4.

Downs C and Craft A
Sex in Context
Pavilion Publishing, Brighton

Downs, C and Farrell, S
'A practical response to masturbation: working with people with profound multiple disabilities' in Tizard Learning Disability Review, Volume 1, Issue 4.

Deveney, C
'Out of depths' in Spectrum Magazine, May 19 2003, Scotland on Sunday.

Eales, J and Watson, J
Health education in Scottish schools: Meeting special educational needs
Scottish Office Education Department (1994)

Fricker, M
'A practical look at sex education' in Talking Sense, Winter 1990, Sense, London.

Hamilton, T
'Sexuality in Deaf Blind Persons' in Sexuality and Disability, Vol 2(3), Fall 1979, Human Science Press.

Hart, P and Douglas-Scott, S
Batteries not included - a sexuality resource pack for working with people with complex communication support needs
Common Knowledge, Glasgow (2005)

Hayes, I
'Sex education in the early years' in Health Education No 1, January 1995, MCB University Press.

Hendy, S
'Balancing Act' in Community Care, 23-29 May 2002.

Hinsburger, D
'Teaching children and adults with disabilities about sexuality' from website of Paul H Brookes Publishing Co (2001).

Hinsburger, D and Tough, S
'Health Sexuality: Attitudes, systems and policies' in Researc and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilites, Vol 27, No 1 2002.

Johnson, K, Frawley, P, Hillier, L, and Harrison L
'Living safer sexual lives: research and action' in Tizard Learning Disability Review, Vol 7, Issue 3, Pavilion Publishing (2002).

Lesseliers, J
'A right to sexuality?' in British Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol 27 1999.

Longhorn, F
Sex education and sexuality for very special people - a sensory approach
Catalyst Education Resources (1997)

McCarthy, M and Cambridge, P
Your rights about sex - a booklet for people with learning disabilities
BILD Publications (1996)

McKay, C
'Crimes of Passion' in Care Weekly, 10 May 1991.

Miller, T
'Social / Sex Education for children and youths who are deafblind'

Moss, K and Baha, R
Sexuality education for individuals who are deablind and significantly developmentally delayed
DBLink (2001)

Neff, J
'Another perspective on sexuality and those who are deaf and blind' in Sexuality and Disability Vol 2(3), Fall 1979, Human Science Press.

Ostli, E
'Effects of maturation - emphasis on sexual development' in Talking Sense, Spring 1988, Sense, London.

Report on a series of events to look at the sexual health needs of young people, Children in Scotland (2002).

Scott, L and Hovey, A
'Not children any more' in Special Children, May 1991.

Scott, L and Kerr-Edwards, L
Talking together . . . about growing up - a workbook for paents of children with learning disabilities
fpa, London (1999)

Shelton, D
'Client sexual behaviour and staff attitudes - shaping masturbation in an indivitual with a profound mental and secondary sensory handicap' in Mental Handicap, Vol 20, June 1992, BIMH Publications.

Stewart, D and Ray C
'Ensuring entitlement: sex and relationships education for disabled children' Forum factsheet.

Swain, J and Thirlaway, C
'Just when you think you got it all sorted . . . parental dilemmas in relation to the developing sexuality of young profoundly disabled people' in British Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol 24.

Valios, N
'Desire Denied' in Community Care, Issue 1391, 20-26 September 2001.

Von malachowski, V
'Personal and sexual development in the deafblind adult' in Deafblind Education, January-June 1994.

Talking with young people about sex and relationships
London (2001)

Sex Education Forum Charter

Scottish Executive
Sex Education in Scottish Schools - summary of national advice
Edinburgh 2001

Sexual health resources for young people who are blind or partially sighted
RNIB (2000)