University of Edinburgh

Colourful Semantics and Strategies to help a deaf child at school


Corfe, Louise
Teaching toolkit and resource pack: raising deaf children's achievements in literacy
Frank Barnes School for Deaf Children, 2007
These resources provide teachers with a developmental approach to teaching literacy. Booklet with CD-ROM of resources so that they can be reproduced easily and as necessary.

Crystal, David
How language works
Penguin, 2006
ISBN 9780141015521
An introduction to the study of language. "How babies babble, words change meaning and languages live or die ..."

National Deaf Children's Society (NDCS)
Assessing and monitoring the progress of deaf children and young people: Communication, language and listening
NDCS, 2012
ISBN 9781907814655
An overview of the main language assessments in use for children who are deaf.

Nunes, Terezinha; Evans, Deborah; Burman, Diana; Barros, Rosanna
Secrets of words: a programme to help deaf children's literacy
NDCS, 2012
ISBN 9781907814723
This booklet is accompanied by a USB memory stick which contains an interactive programme of lessons, exercises and games to help improve deaf children's literacy skills.

Stelling, Jessica
Words they need: welcoming children who are deaf and hard of hearing to literacy
Edward Arnold, 1999
ISBN 0912752440
Describes a programme used with deaf children in a mainstream setting to improve literacy skills.


Benedict, Kendra M; Rivera, Maria C; Antia, Shirin D
Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase deaf and hard-of-hearing students’ reading comprehension
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Jan 2015, Vol 20 (1), p1-15
An intervention study of a strategy to improve reading comprehension in deaf children which involves "Comprehension, Check and Repair".

Berent, Gerald P ... [et al]
Focus-on-form instructional methods promote deaf college students' improvement in English grammar
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Winter 2007, Vol 12 (1), p8-24
Techniques for learning English as a second language are applied to deaf students.

Cannon, Joanna E; Hubley, Anita M; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla
Comprehension of written grammar test: reliability and known-groups validity study with hearing and deaf and hard-of-hearing students
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Jan 2016, Vol 21 (1), p54-63
This study assessed the validity of a grammar reading test given to deaf and hard of hearing children.

Conway, Christopher M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Pisoni, David B
Contribution of implicit sequence learning to spoken language processing: some preliminary findings with hearing adults
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Summer 2007, Vol 12 (3), p317-334
Research suggests that an ability to learn structured sequential patterns may underlie language acquisition. This study examined the extent to which sequence learning of structured patterns in hearing adults correlates with a spoken sentence perception task under degraded listening conditions.

Dillon, Caitlin M; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B
Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Spring 2012, Vol 17 (2), p205-226
A study that compares children's phonological awareness with their reading skills and vocabulary.

Dominguez, Ana-Belen; Carrillo, Maria-Soledad; Gonzalez, Virginia; Alegria, Jesus
How do deaf children with and without cochlear implants manage to read sentences: the key word strategy
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Jul 2016, Vol 21 (3), p280-292
Looks at the effect of cochlear implants on children's use of reading strategies

Friedmann, Naama & Szterman, Ronit
Syntactic movement in orally trained children with hearing impairment
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Winter 2006, Vol 11 (1), p56-75
Studies the level of comprehension of sentences by orally educated deaf children. Students were found to have significant delays in comprehending particular sentence structures.

Kelly, Ronald R & Berent, Gerald P
Semantic and pragmatic factors influencing deaf and hearing students’ comprehension of English sentences containing numeral quantifiers
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Fall 2011, Vol 16 (4), p419-436
Looks at how deaf children understand English sentences relating to the quantitative aspects of their meaning (eg words like every, a, three etc).

Trussell, Jessica W & Easterbrooks, Susan R
Effects of morphographic instruction on the morphographic analysis skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing students
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Jul 2015
, Vol 20 (3), p229-241
Morphographic knowledge includes understanding the meaning of affixes, roots and base words where deconstructing a word can aid working out the meaning. This can be used as an intervention where children are having difficulty with reading.

Wauters, Loes N; Tellings, Agnes EJM; van Bon, Wim HJ; Mak, Willem M
Mode of acquisition as a factor in deaf children's reading comprehension
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Spring 2008, Vol 13 (2), p175-192
Examines the role of mode of acquisition of word meanings in reading comprehension, ie whether children acquire vocabulary best through perceptual (touching, seeing etc) or linguistic information (description).

Wolbers, Kimberly A ... [et al]
Writing performance of elementary students receiving strategic and interactive writing instruction
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Oct 2015, Vol 20 (4), p385-398
Describes a strategy which has been shown to improve the writing of young deaf and hard of hearing school children.

Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dostal, Hannah M; Bowers, Lisa M
“I was born full deaf.” Written language outcomes after 1 year of strategic and interactive writing instruction
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Winter 2012, Vol 17 (1), p19-38
Describes an intervention to improve deaf children's written language.


Burman, Diana
Deaf children learning
Oxford University
[Accessed: 01/03/2011]
Website of games and exercises aimed at helping deaf children who struggle with basic literacy and numeracy. Ongoing research project with NDCS.

Integrated Treatment Services
Colourful semantics [website]
Integrated Treatment Services, 2017
[Accessed: 15/08/2017]
Colourful Semantics resources available to print off and use. See also the main Colourful Semantics website: