University of Edinburgh

Reading and Reading Development


Aitken, Stuart; Ravenscroft, John; Buultjens, Marianna
Assessment of reading performance by visually impaired adolescents with modified print (ARP-VIA)
RNIB, 2000
ISBN 1858783976
Looks at the variables in print which affect readability for visually impaired young people.

Corfe, Louise
Teaching toolkit and resource pack: raising deaf children's achievements in literacy
Frank Barnes School for Deaf Children, 2007
These resources provide teachers with a developmental approach to teaching literacy. Booklet with CD-ROM of resources so that they can be reproduced easily and as necessary.

Fellenius, Kerstin
Reading acquisition in pupils with visual impairments in mainstream education
Stockholm Institute of Education, 1999
ISBN 917656455X
Research looking at reading ability in visually impaired pupils using either Braille or print in mainstream classes.

Fellenius, Kerstin
Reading skills of the visually impaired: experiences from reading training of eight pupils
Stockholm Institute of Education, 1996
ISBN 9176564037
Six month reading training project at Stockholm Institute of Education, Sweden

Henry, Kimberley A
How do I teach this kid to read? Teaching literacy skills to young children with autism, from phonics to fluency
Future Horizons, 2010
ISBN 9781935274148
Practical strategies written by an experienced teacher of children with additional support needs.

Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl & Ricci, Leila Ansari
Reading connections: strategies for teaching students with visual impairments
AFB, 2015
ISBN 9780891286349
A holistic approach to teaching reading to children with visual impairments.

Koda, Keiko
Reading and language learning
Blackwell, 2007
ISBN 9781405175746
This volume explores the reciprocal relationship between reading and language learning. Includes topics such as how second language reading is constrained by linguistic demands and how bilingualism contributes to literacy development.

National Deaf Children's Society (NDCS)
Phonics guidance: for the teaching of phonics to deaf children
NDCS, 2012
ISBN 9781907814617
A guide for classroom teachers using phonics schemes and how to teach these schemes to the deaf children in their class.

Nunes, Terezinha; Evans, Deborah; Burman, Diana; Barros, Rosanna
Secrets of words: a programme to help deaf children's literacy
NDCS, 2012
ISBN 9781907814723
This booklet is accompanied by a USB memory stick which contains an interactive programme of lessons, exercises and games to help improve deaf children's literacy skills.

Schirmer, Barbara
Language and literacy development in children who are deaf (2nd ed)
Allyn & Bacon, 2000
ISBN 0205314937
A broad guide to language development and literacy skills for deaf children.

Stelling, Jessica
Words they need: welcoming children who are deaf and hard of hearing to literacy
Edward Arnold, 1999
ISBN 0912752440
Describes a programme used with deaf children in a mainstream setting to improve literacy skills.

Stewart, David A & Clarke, Bryan R
Literacy and your deaf child: what every parent should know
Gallaudet University Press, 2003
ISBN 1563681366
Provides the means for parents to ensure that their deaf child becomes a proficient reader and writer.

Assessment Materials

Ann Arbor tracking program: Sentence tracking
Ann Arbor, 1987
ISBN 0878797483
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.


Benedict, Kendra M; Rivera, Maria C; Antia, Shirin D
Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase deaf and hard-of-hearing students’ reading comprehension
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Jan 2015, Vol 20 (1), p1-15
An intervention study of a strategy to improve reading comprehension in deaf children which involves "Comprehension, Check and Repair".

Berthiaume, Rachel & Daigle, Daniel
Morphological processing and learning to read: the case of deaf children
Deafness and Education International
Dec 2014, Vol 16 (4), p185-203
Many deaf students encounter great difficulty in learning to read. Usually phonological processing is identified as the source of their reading difficulty. However, recent studies have shown that morphological processing also plays an important part in reading.

Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo
Developing a structural model of reading: the role of hearing status in reading development over time
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
October 2013, Vol 18 (4), p489-512
A study to develop a structural model of reading. Data from a 4-year longitudinal study of Dutch primary school children with and without hearing loss were used to conduct an exploratory analysis of how lexical components (ie, decoding skills, lexical decision, and lexical use) relate to one another and to reading comprehension.

Dillon, Caitlin M; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B
Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Spring 2012, Vol 17 (2), p205-226
A study that compares children's phonological awareness with their reading skills and vocabulary.

Krejtz, Izabela; Szarkowska, Agnieszka; Loginska, Maria
Reading function and content words in subtitled videos
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Apr 2016, Vol 21 (2), p222-232
Deaf and hearing people were studied while watching subtitled videos for reading patterns.

Kyle, Fiona E & Harris, Margaret
Longitudinal patterns of emerging literacy in beginning deaf and hearing readers
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Summer 2011, Vol 16 (3), p289-304
Compares the emerging literacy of young deaf children with young hearing children. The deaf children in the study varied in their preferred modes of communication.

Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
Effects of cochlear implants on children's reading and academic achievement
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Sum 2007, Vol 12 (3), p269-282
This article reviews the available evidence concerning the effects of paediatric cochlear implantation on the development of reading skills and academic achievements.

Mayberry, Rachel I; del Giudice, Alex A; Lieberman, Amy M
Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: a meta-analysis
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Spring 2011, Vol 16 (2), p164-188
Looks at the relation between reading ability and children's understanding and awareness of how written language relates to the sound patterns of spoken language.

McLeish, Eve
Study of the effect of letter spacing on the reading speed of younger readers with low vision
British Journal of Visual Impairment
May 2007, Vol 25 (2), p133-143
A study of the impact of letter spacing on the readability by children with visual impairment. It indicates that properly spaced letters can allow a reduction of the print size.

Mohammed, Zainora & Omar, Rokiah
Comparison of reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted students in Malaysia
British Journal of Visual Impairment
Sept 2011, Vol 29 (3), p196-207
Compares the reading performance (reading rate and comprehension) of normally sighted pupils with visually impaired children (using either large print or Braille).

Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C
How deaf American Sign Language/English bilingual children become proficient readers: an emic perspective
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
July 2014, Vol 19 (3), p333-346
Looks at how deaf bilingual readers transition from 'learning to read' to 'reading to learn'.

Narr, Rachel F & Cawthon, Stephanie W
'Wh' questions of visual phonics: What, who, where, when, and why
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Winter 2011, Vol 16 (1), p66-78
A survey of teachers to find out how the visual phonics system is being used with deaf children in the USA.

Swanwick, Ruth A; Kitchen, Ruth; Clarke, Paula J
Practitioner talk on deaf children's reading comprehension: analysing multiple voices
Deafness and Education International
June 2012, Vol 14 (2), p100-120
This study used a focus group of deaf education practitioners (teachers, communication support workers and deaf instructors) to explore the factors that influence success for deaf children in reading comprehension skills.

Trezek, Beverly J & Hancock, Gregory R
Implementing instruction in the alphabetic principle within a sign bilingual setting
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
July 2013, Vol 18 (3), p391-408
Remedial work in alphabetical principles is used with deaf children to help develop reading skills.