University of Edinburgh

Newsletter 28 Autumn 2009



braille day

Once again it has been a busy year in the Scottish Sensory Centre (SSC). The SSC has established itself as a Centre of Excellence in its core activities, which are providing continuing professional development, specialist knowledge, advice and guidance to those involved in the education of sensory impaired children and young people within Scotland. None of this would be possible without the support of the Scottish Government and from professionals, parents, voluntary organisations and individual experts. Some of our activities are highlighted below.

Early Years: The focus of the current core programme has been on 'Early Years'. Credit must be given to both the HI and VI focus groups who have been working hard and by the end of the core period the SSC will be able to add to the resources already published; details in the Spring Newsletter.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD): Behind the scenes the CPD team has worked steadfastly to produce a full and varied programme of courses for this school session (see page 15). Course flyers/applications are posted out regularly but can also be downloaded from the website.

Courses are already underway. The Braille Competency distance-learning courses continue to be popular and the Grade 2 course is full but there are places available on the Grade 1 introductory course; applications are accepted throughout the year. The courses based at the SSC started on 16th September with the successful delivery of Course 2: Supporting Children and Young People in a Mainstream School.

Last session, Lorna Hall, VI Consultant, delivered training on the Early Years Developmental Journal in Stirling, North Lanarkshire and at the SSC. All participants received a copy of the Journal. If you are interested in having this course, or any of the other SSC courses on offer, delivered locally, please get in touch regarding costs involved and potential dates.

Sharing Knowledge and Expertise: The SSC continues to collaborate on making research project bids (see page 9 for the latest ADPS development) and to investigate new approaches to sharing knowledge and expertise relevant to sensory impairment.

The SSC is grateful for the continued support and advice, which is given so willingly from local authorities, special schools and individuals; their contributions and collaboration ensures that the SSC is able to meet its aims and objectives.

Janis Sugden
Co-ordinator, SSC


'Bye for now

Well, I am two years older and 23(!) courses wiser and the time has come to allow someone else to benefit from the fantastic experience of working as Deaf Education CPD Organiser at the Scottish Sensory Centre (SSC). Of all the courses I have been involved in organising over the last two years, if I had to choose my favourite, I think it would have to be the BSL Immersion Weekend which took place in June 2008. Although it required by far the most organising and produced the most stress, it was the most fun and great to spend time with so many people eager to improve their BSL skills.

I would like to thank everyone at the SSC for the support and help they have provided me throughout the two years. I have really enjoyed working with them and have learned a great deal. I would also like to thank my dear colleagues at Garvel Deaf Centre: without their willingness to be generous and flexible with their time, I would have been unable to fulfil the CPD Organiser's role. I wish Carole Torrance, my successor, the best of luck. She, of course, is very experienced in the world of Deaf Education and I am sure will provide us with relevant, current and interesting courses which will meet the needs of professionals working in Deaf education and the parents of deaf children. I am sure Carole will enjoy fulfilling this role - I definitely have!

Eileen Burns



Carole Torrance

I am delighted to take up the post of Deaf Education CPD Organiser at the SSC. Eileen Burns has provided an interesting and topical range of courses for the coming academic year and I look forward to using my skills to follow in her footsteps.

I had already organised early retirement from West Lothian's Hearing Impaired Services in June 2009 when this post became available and I decided that there were still things in Deaf Education that I really wanted to do.

I have had a wide variety of posts in deaf education: peripatetic teacher, AHT in a School for Deaf children, the first teacher member of the Scottish Paediatric Cochlear Implant Centre and a Head of Service. These posts involved babies to high schools and all levels between! At every stage my motivation has always been seeking the best provision and support for deaf children and their families and an important aspect of this is having accessible high quality CPD opportunities for teachers.

It was my interest in CPD for teachers working with deaf pupils that took me into BATOD (British Association of Teachers of Deaf Children). Relatively speaking there is a small number of teachers and this means it is even more valuable to be part of a larger group for the purposes of CPD. This interest led me to the BATOD Scotland committee. The more involved the more I wanted to do to maintain, enhance and extend the skills of teachers working with deaf pupils (and babies) and their families. This led me onto the national BATOD Professional Development Committee and then to become President of the Association. I hope to use my experiences in all of these roles to bring you relevant courses and opportunities to network.

Ensuring that there are relevant CPD courses is always a challenge when planning so far ahead so I hope you will contact me with your suggestions. I look forward to meeting you in the coming year either here at the SSC or delivering courses to you in your area.

Carole Torrance
Deaf Education CPD Organiser
Tel: 0131 651 6501


fun with messy play

Resource Library Update

At the start of another new session I’d just like to remind everyone of the services we provide in the library. Just contact me if you are looking for information or ideas, I will do my best to find relevant materials from the books, journals, videos/DVDs etc held in the library. We can send them out to you for free in the post and you can return them in person or by post (at your own cost). It couldn’t be simpler! Annual subscription fees are currently very modest: £15 organisations; £7 individuals; and £3 concession rate.

Recently we have been building up our collection of Early Years materials in the library. As well as a recent batch of materials from the Ear Foundation which concentrates on developing communication with newly diagnosed babies and younger children with hearing losses, we have been purchasing general books on early years.

One interesting book is Fun with Messy Play by Tracey Beckerleg. Tracey is an experienced teacher of children with additional needs who loves what she calls messy play. This includes dry play, eg, lentils, flour, sand and wet play, eg, jelly, tinned tomatoes, mud. The book outlines a wealth of ideas for this type of activity and ways in which it can benefit children. She has found it particularly useful in multisensory situations. Tactile defensive children are discussed and strategies to sensitively introduce more tactile experiences are explored.

Sheila Mackenzie
Resource Library Manager
Telephone: 0131 651 6069


Donaldson's Building Blocks for Success

donaldson's campus

From September 2009, Donaldson's is launching a brand new weekly support group for parents and carers called Building Blocks. Based at Donaldson's School in Linlithgow, West Lothian, the new group was made possible by a grant of £13,300 from the BBC's Children in Need and supports parents and carers and their children from birth to three years who have a family affected by deafness or speech and language difficulties.

The introduction of neonatal screening has allowed more babies to be diagnosed with hearing difficulties much earlier, which gives parents time to develop their child's skills from an early age and make more informed choices about their future. Many other moderate and complex additional support needs, including communication disorders, are also now diagnosed in babies and therefore an increased number of parents/carers require support and advice within their child's first few years.

The school's nursery itself recently received an outstanding commendation from the Care Commission. Parents/carers and their young children can also benefit from the opportunity to share experiences with other families and participate in a number of programmed social and educational events throughout each term. The weekly sessions can be delivered in both English and/or British Sign Language (BSL) as appropriate to the needs of the group.


Linlithgow was designed with the specific needs of their pupils in mind and offers additional benefits for the Building Blocks group including access to the school's well equipped nursery department, the swimming pool; the sensory room; the library and the Audiology Testing Chamber. Most importantly, the school also provides the highest level of expertise through its specialist staff who can also support Building Blocks including: Speech and Language Therapists; an Educational Audiologist; Educational Psychologist, BSL Tutors; trained counsellors; a physiotherapist; occupational therapist and a school nurse.


Speaking about the launch of the new group, Donaldson's Principal, Janice MacNeill said;

For many parents who are deaf themselves or who have children diagnosed as deaf or with communications difficulties, finding the right support is vital. We believe in early intervention and Building Blocks can help parents and carers right from the very start and aid them through what is, for many, a difficult time. It is a great joy to us, in our new location which was designed with these children in mind, to be able to launch this new service and make a difference to their lives.


Christmas Card Competition for SSC

We are pleased to announce a competition for all pupils in Scotland who are deaf or who have a visual impairment to design a Christmas card for the Scottish Sensory Centre.

There will be three categories:
3-7 years,
8-11 years, and
12-18 years.

Our favourite overall will be used as the design for the card itself but prizes will be awarded to winners of each category.
All the winning designs will be highlighted in our next newsletter.

Please ensure that whatever the size of design, that it is not folded or creased when sent in to us so that a good print can be taken for the finished card.

Deadline for submissions will be Monday, 16th November 2009.

Please send your entries in to:

Scottish Sensory Centre
Moray House School of Education
University of Edinburgh
Holyrood Road

Last year's winning entry was by Kieran Taylor a pupil at the Royal Blind School:


Living in a Changing Europe

ssc stand

ICEVI 7th European Conference: Dublin July 2009

The International Council for Education of people with Visual Impairment (ICEVI) is a global organisation of individuals and organisations that promotes equal access to appropriate education for people of all ages with a visual impairment so that they may achieve their full potential. It is a professional non-government organisation. For further information about the European Section of this organisation please see:

  • In July the 7th ICEVI annual conference took place at Trinity College, Dublin. There was a full social programme as well as an excellent scientific programme where delegates shared and received information. Scotland was very well represented and it was encouraging to note that so much good practice was shared with our colleagues from Europe and beyond. Mary Lee, from The Royal Blind School, is a member of the Scientific Committee with responsibility for dealing with all abstracts and poster applications. The degree of commitment put into the planning and organisation of this conference cannot be underestimated and it is due to their hard work that this conference was so successful.

    There were many excellent presentations and I apologise if I have missed anyone out; however, I was able to attend the following sessions delivered by colleagues working in a Scottish context. Mary Dallas, Education Manager and myself were involved in the first session when we delivered a presentation "A Journey to Excellence for Children and Young People who are Blind and Visually Impaired". Mary and I will continue to work on this exciting project and more information on this will be available later.

    It was a particular pleasure to witness Karren Huzzey, a teacher from Dundee, deliver a presentation "I wanna hold your hand - not any more." I worked with Karren on the postgraduate diploma course and she developed her course work to deliver this presentation to look at increasing the independence of the pupils that she supports.

    jennifer and david in dublin

    Dr Jennifer Skillen (pictured here with Dr David Feeney), gave a first class presentation "Factors Influencing Low Vision Aid (LVAs) Use Amongst Visually Impaired Children in Scotland" on behalf of V.I. Scotland and Dr David Feeney helped 'man' their exhibition stand.

    The other Scottish delegates who presented included Irene Scullion for Oaklands School; Mary Lee and Janis Graham from The Royal Blind School and Iain Prain and Carrie Mannion from the Canaan Lane Campus of The Royal Blind School. Abstracts/papers from all of these presentations - as well as from all other presenters - are available from ICEVI:


The SSC also exhibited a stand, which was open to delegates and to the general public during the conference. Many complimentary comments were received and it was satisfying to know that the SSC website is so well-known and used. During the conference Janis Sugden was nominated and appointed as the Scottish Contact for the ICEVI.

The 13th World Conference of ICEVI: "Achieving Education for All Children with Visual Impairment: Strategies and Challenges" takes place at Jomtien, Thailand from 9th-13th August 2010.

The programme committee invite you to respond to their Call for Papers by submitting an abstract no later than 31st October 2009


The Royal Blind School Early Years Play Group

Recognising the importance of early intervention for children with little or no sight

The Royal Blind School aims to offer the highest possible quality of education and care for children and young people with little or no vision. The teaching philosophy employed at the school is based on the understanding that low vision creates unique educational needs, since vision is the primary sense for learning. Consequently, loss of vision requires the development and use of imaginative and varied teaching approaches. As part of this service, we offer an Early Years Play Group for children aged from birth to five years with their parents and carers. Children who attend the early years playgroup are often attending other play and nursery groups and go on to a range of educational provision when they are of school age.

Staff at the play group are specialists in developing communication and play opportunities specific to the early developmental needs of children with a visual impairment. Support for the children’s visual development is provided through structured observations during play and in the everyday environment. The play group is also a key opportunity for parents to meet each other and discuss matters of mutual interest.

The sessions provide a chance for parents to chat whilst staff work with the children at play. At the end of the morning everyone comes together for a 'social' with a familiar routine of on-body sign, music and song. Specialist staff are available to work alongside parents in one-to-one sessions with their child. We have an excellent toy library and at weekends families can have access to the hydrotherapy pool.

The Play Group meets every week at the school’s Canaan Lane Campus in Morningside, Edinburgh. We aim to work alongside and complement other agencies and services. If you wish to find out more about the Early Years Play Group, please contact the school office at the Canaan Lane Campus:

The Royal Blind School
Canaan Lane Campus
43-45 Canaan Lane
Edinburgh EH10 4SG
Telephone: 0131 446 3120


Scottish Deaf Heritage

scod logo

Scottish Council on Deafness (SCoD) a grant of £47,000 to preserve Scottish Deaf people's heritage by capturing their memories on film so that future generations are able to benefit from it. The funding will be used to:

Record this unique heritage for future generations - deaf and hearing - especially those with deaf parents or grandparents.

Film Deaf people's reminiscences live on camera in their native BSL to be produced on DVD, providing a valuable and much needed resource for younger Deaf people to learn about their own culture and history.

Provide teaching materials for Deaf Studies courses in schools and colleges so students can learn directly from the films about Deaf Culture, Heritage and Language.

Preserve older Deaf people's signs on film. As the language changes and develops these old signs are in danger of being lost forever.

Lilian Lawson OBE, SCoD Director said:

We are very grateful that the Heritage Lottery Fund has recognised the importance of preserving Scottish Deaf Heritage. The funding will enable us to produce a DVD which will be accessible to all through BSL, subtitling and voice-over so that younger and future generations can learn about their own heritage. Deaf people's memories of school, apprenticeships and work will be recorded showing how they coped in an age without the benefits of modern technology such as mobile phones, visual alarms and email. Deaf children in Scotland will, for the first time, be able to learn about their own heritage and cultural history in their own language.

SCoD wishes to acknowledge its appreciation to the British Deaf History Society, Deaf Connections, the Scottish Sensory Centre, Dumfries & Galloway Deaf Society, the British Deaf Association and the Scottish Oral History Society for their support of this successful funding application.

SCoD is a national co-ordinating body with a diverse membership representing the statutory and voluntary sectors. It is the only umbrella body representing the interests of local and national voluntary organisations, local authority social work, education and health departments working with Deaf, deafened, deafblind and hard of hearing people. We work together to improve the quality of life of all deaf and deafblind people in Scotland.

Contact Lilian Lawson OBE:
Text: 0141 248 2477
Fax: 0141 248 2479


Achievement & Opportunities for Deaf Students in the United Kingdom: From
Research to Practice

Continuing the Achievements of Deaf Pupils in Scotland (ADPS) Research

Over the summer a research grant of £143,000 over two years was awarded from the Nuffield Foundation. This work will start in October 2009. The aim of the project is to produce more results from the existing ADPS database and to continue to collect a small amount of new data on the original group of children in the study. Professor Marc Marschark, honorary professor of deaf education at the University of Edinburgh has helped with this grant application and will be involved with the project. A reference group composed of teachers of deaf children, deaf people and young people and representatives of groups such as NDCS will advise the research team. We will be seeking a quantitative researcher with experience in the field of deafness.

One of the more challenging parts of this project will be tracking down the school-leavers. We will be using a combination of methods including posters in audiology clinics, adverts, word of mouth, Facebook and Bebo to try to find as many as possible. School services will be receiving a mailing in October to explain more about the project and ask for help. We are not trying to collect nearly as much data as last time, you will all be glad to hear. We are trying to make the best use of the existing database and see if we can generate useful findings when we look back at the outcomes for deaf children over the period 2000 - 2010.

If you would like further information about this research project, please get in touch with


Deaf Education Early Years Working Group

This group has three working sub-groups with the chairs of each group meeting regularly to co-ordinate by video conferencing. A successful day was held for members of all three groups on 9th May at the SSC to discuss future plans.

Brian Shannan, Educational Audiologist from the Fife Council Sensory Support Service, is co-ordinating the Training sub-group. This group meets at the SSC regularly and is drawing up quality indicators using the NDCS early years guidelines as a starting point. The aim then is to look at a range of training opportunities which could be provided by the SSC or other Universities.

Kim Davidson-Kelly, Speech and Language Therapist, Glasgow NHS, is co-ordinating the Play sub-group which meets in Glasgow. This group plans to produce a DVD for parents of deaf children in Scotland which focuses on parent and child interaction to promote play and language development. The aim is to have a DVD which users can choose to watch and listen to in English, spoken community languages or BSL.

Helen Reilly from the Aberdeenshire school service is co-ordinating the Communication sub-group and this group meets in Aberdeen. This sub-group has asked the English Early Years team for a copyright agreement to make minor amendments to the monitoring protocol so we can adapt the materials for a Scottish context. For example, the fridge cards could be personalised for families using Word. The sections on producing and listening to vowel sounds and the BSL regional variations need to be adapted to a Scottish context.

The work of all three groups is available on the SSC website for other practitioners to read about. Usually action plan grids are used for meeting notes:

You can also download the Word version of the fridge cards:


Transatlantic agreement

group photo\

Alan, Marc, Rachel, Gary Quinn, Dr Audrey Cameron

On 16th September Dr Alan Hurwitz, the President of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) in Rochester, New York came to the University of Edinburgh to sign an agreement between the two institutions.

Rachel O'Neill, Lecturer in Deaf Education, arranged a small social gathering to welcome Alan and give colleagues the opportunity to meet and get better acquainted with Marc Marschark also from NTID. Marc has been the honorary professor of deaf education at the University of Edinburgh since 2008.

Formalizing our relationship with Moray House offers many exciting possibilities. We look forward to working with staff and students to better understand teaching and learning involving deaf and hard-of-hearing students. The results will be mutually beneficial and offer new opportunities and enhanced outcomes for the students we serve.
Dr Alan Hurwitz

This also strengthens the existing relationship between NTID and Moray House through Professor Marc Marschark.


Annual Cochlear Implant Conference

Cochlear Implants 2009: The State of the Art
Friday, 13th November, 2009 at National College for School Leadership, Nottingham

The Ear Foundation is delighted to announce their fourth annual Cochlear Implants (CI) conference. Each year, this event brings together expert speakers from around the world who work in the latest areas of practice and research in cochlear implantation, as well as CI users themselves. This is an opportunity to update yourself on current issues in this fast moving field if you are working with deaf children or adults. The faculty this year includes: Sue Archbold, Louise Craddock, Patricia Chute, Rose Donno, Sandra Driver, Connie Mayer, Emmanuel Mylanus, Gerard O’Donoghue, Bernhard Seeber and Tracey Twomey.

This year’s conference will address current areas including:
Service delivery; Surgical challenges; Audiological issues; Technological issues; Early cochlear implantation; Bilateral implantation; Complex children; Psychological issues; Communication, speech and language; Educational outcomes; Adult issues.

The day will culminate in a ‘round table’ discussion led by Patricia Chute from New York.

The programme for the full day will be available on the Ear Foundation website link:

ear foundation logo

For more information contact:
Sam Devanney
Education Organiser
The Ear Foundation
Marjorie Sherman House
83 Sherwin Road
Telephone: 0115 942 1985


Return from Down Under

It doesn't seem that long since I was writing to you all about the gigantic spider running about the dashboard of my car and refusing to be squashed. Well, a lot has happened since that time including deadly snakes in the pool and giant bats and possums living in the house roof space but I have now returned from Sydney to 'bonnie' Edinburgh. Although it sounds as if my time over in New South Wales (NSW) has been a battle against man and nature, this is only partly true; I look back upon my time there with great fondness and joy. I feel extremely privileged to have been given the opportunity to work in NSW for the last 18 months. So what is Australia really like? A common question, and my usual answer of "oh yeah, it is alright" does it no justice at all.

Australia is massive. NSW alone is ten times the size of Scotland but with the same population though the education system is very different. As you all know Australia is divided up into different states and territories and each has its own department of education, funds and supports different aspects. In this way it is not too different to here. However, what is different is how education is implemented. I can only describe what happens in NSW as each state is so different.

In NSW there are three differing education 'systems' that operate: children are either educated in state schools, independent schools, or in Catholic schools. The latter forms the largest sector after government state schools and are funded mainly by the government and have low fees. There are also a substantial number of independent Catholic schools but the fees vary, ranging from low to high. Independent schools, although partly funded by the government, are generally non-government institutions and not part of the state system.

Children who have a vision or hearing impairment can be educated in any of the three 'systems'. However as you can imagine there is not an equal split across the three sectors. Only 60% of all children with a disability are educated in public state schools.

NSW, unlike Scotland, does not have a mandatory requirement of teachers working with children who are deaf or vision impaired to have specialist training equalling our qualifications. Even if it did, the requirement would only apply to those teachers working in state schools. Across the three 'systems' there are many qualified teachers of vision impaired (QTVI) and teachers of deaf (QToD) pupils, but there is a vast number of teachers who do not have a postgraduate qualification in hearing or vision impairment who are working with children who are sensory impaired.

One of the many reasons for this is due to the vast areas that many itinerant teachers have to cover. As mentioned above, NSW is very large and it would be almost impossible to employ enough QTVIs/QToDs to cover the whole of the state. An itinerant teacher, certainly in the remote areas of NSW, needs to be a master of all specialisms: Vision, Hearing, Autism, Challenging Behaviour, Intellectual Impairment, etc. Some of the most functionally skilled teachers of children with multiple disabilities I met came from these remote areas.

While in NSW I raised the issue of competences and discussed how a competence programme with credible assessment could in fact deliver many new skilled teachers. The response from the Vision Teachers that I met was extremely positive and nearly all were in favour of a competence-led qualification that might help meet the demand for QTVIs in NSW.

There are many more things I could share about Australia but space is limited. If you do want to hear more, please let me know. I'll sign off for now but I won't be putting another 'snag on the BBQ' as it is just too cold here!!

Dr John Ravenscroft
Educational Studies


The Who's Who of SSC

Christine Stones, who joined us at the beginning of the year, has been appointed ASN Co-ordinator with her local authority, and therefore has had to leave us to concentrate on her new role. Christine's contribution to this year’s programme of VI courses was invaluable and we take this opportunity to thank her and to offer congratulations on her new role from everyone at the SSC.

We welcome Carole Torrance as a new addition to the Team this year; she replaces Eileen Burns who completed her two-year part-time secondment as Deaf Education CPD Organiser in June.

The Who's Who of SSC
The SSC has a team of core staff employed full-time at the centre; this is augmented by seconded or bought-in staff. The core team who underpin the SSC, the CPD programme and services are:

  • Ruth Simpson Administrator/Supervisor
  • Sheila Mackenzie Resource Library Manager
  • Elizabeth Izatt Website Development Manager
  • Linda Hope Senior Secretary

The following people are bought-in on a regular part-time basis to provide specialist knowledge, advice and guidance in relation to the education of Scottish children and young people with sensory impairment.

  • Lorna Hall, VI Consultant and Developmental Journal Trainer
  • Rachel O’Neill, Lecturer in Deaf Education, Department of Educational Studies
  • Carole Torrance, Deaf Education CPD Organiser, former Head of Service for West Lothian
  • Morag Heeps, VI Consultant and Braille Specialist
  • Janis Sugden, SSC Co-ordinator & Lecturer in Visual Impairment Education, Department of Educational Studies

John Ravenscroft is currently undertaking research projects and teaching with the Educational Studies Department. We hope he will also continue to contribute his expertise to the work of the Scottish Sensory Centre and VI Scotland.


SSC Pathway to Competence Course

On 30 September 2005 The Requirements for Teachers (Scotland) Regulations 2005 (Scottish Statutory Instrument 2005/355) came into force. These Regulations state that where an education authority employs a teacher wholly or mainly to teach pupils who are hearing impaired, visually impaired or both hearing and visually impaired, then that teacher must possess an appropriate qualification to teach such pupils. This has significant implications for both individual teachers and the authorities that employ them as the 'clock is ticking' and teachers who were in post in September 2005 must be appropriately qualified by September 2010. It is the responsibility of the local authority to employ suitably qualified teachers. The need for training to be provided flexibly, including at a distance, is emphasised so that there is ready access to training across Scotland; and to allow means, where necessary, for existing qualifications to be upgraded, and prior learning to be accredited to meet new requirements.

These competences have been defined by the Scottish Government and are divided into seven main areas: Assessment; Multi-agency/partnership working; Language and communication; Medical/disability related knowledge; Specialised technology; Specific legislations and policy; Teaching and learning and each of the areas is further divided into components

With this in mind the SSC has developed the above course, which extends the Scottish Standard for Full Registration (SFR) for teachers. The SFR provides a baseline professional standard that will apply to teachers throughout their careers. The first cohort of this course begins in October and details can be found on the SSC website or by contacting the SSC directly for more information.

Janis Sugden
Co-ordinator, SSC


SSC Course Attendance Certificate

The SSC issues a certificate of attendance to all participants on its short courses. Teachers may find these certificates useful to provide evidence of their continuing professional development (CPD). Previously the certificates referred to the Standard for Chartered Teachers (Scottish Executive, 2002). However, at a recent SSC Advisory Committee it was agreed to adapt the certificate to reflect the pathway to competence.

The SSC attendance certificates issued to course participants will relate to the specific competences that are addressed in the course delivery. Teachers will be able to use the course information to develop their knowledge and understanding or to raise their awareness of skills relating to specific competences that will be noted on the certificate. It is possible that teachers may use this certificate of attendance and how they have used the information to demonstrate competence in a specific area; however, it must be stressed that simply attending a short course would not be sufficient to acquire the competences listed. The participant would be required to show how they have used the knowledge and understanding or introduced a skill within an educational setting before this would be achieved.