University of Edinburgh

The materials on this list are available from

Bibliography - Functional Vision Assessment


Aitken, Stuart ... [et al]
Teaching children who are deafblind: contact, communication and learning
David Fulton, 2000
ISBN 1853466743

Aitken, Stuart & Buultjens, Marianna
Vision for doing: assessing functional vision of learners who are multiply disabled (Sensory Series No 2)
Moray House Publications, 1992
ISBN 0901580392
Result of 4-year study based on research & in-service work from schools, adult training centres etc. For all who work with young VI & multiply disabled people.  Sensory Series No 2.

Brambring, Michael ... [et al]
Assessment of blind infants and preschoolers: preliminary results with the Bielefeld developmental test
Universitat Bielefeld, 1989
Written version of a speech presented at the Dept of Psychology and Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN.

Chapman, Elizabeth K; Tobin, Michael J; Tooze, F H; Moss, S
Look and think : a handbook for teachers
RNIB, 1989
ISBN 0901797502
Visual perception training for VI children (5-11). Contains information about procedures & materials for use at home & school to encourage young VI children to use their remaining vision more efficiently.

Cratty, Bryant J & Sams, Theresa A
Body-image of blind children
AFB, 1968
Research report on a project seeking to assess the extent and nature of visually impaired children's body-images.

ESA Creative Learning
Visual discrimination material: Book 1: Pictures
ESA Creative learning, 1965
This card booklet provides graded exercises in visual discrimination.

Fielder, Alistair R; Best, Anthony B; Bax, Martin C O (Eds)
Management of visual impairment in childhood
Cambridge University Press, 1993
ISBN 0521451507
A practical & theoretical guide aimed at all who are involved in the day-to-day management of children with VI.

Freeman, Peggy
Understanding the deaf-blind child
Heinemann Health Books, 1975
ISBN 043310905X
Practical advice from a parent of a deafblind child.  Emphasising the importance of the early years.

Friel, John
Children with special needs: assessment, law and practice: caught in the acts (3rd edition)
Jessica Kingsley, 1995
ISBN 1853022802

Goodman, Stephen A & Wittenstein, Stuart H
Collaborative assessment: working with students who are blind or visually impaired, including those with additional disabilities
AFB, 2003
ISBN 0891288694

Hill, Eileen
Assessing the visually impaired: an annotated bibliography of educational, vocational and psychological tests and procedures
University of Birmingham, 1994

Hyvärinen, Lea
Identification and assessment of low vision for educational purposes in developing countries Part 1
Precision Vision, 1997
Cat No: 2805

Hyvärinen, Lea
Vision testing manual: 1995-1996 (In reference collection)
Precision Vision, 1995
Cat No: 2803 International course for Low Vision therapists

Hyvärinen, Lea; Gimble, Lindsay; Sorri, Martti
Assessment of vision and hearing of deaf-blind persons
RVIB, 1990
ISBN 0949390119

Hyvärinen, Lea & Lindstedt, Eva
Assessment of vision in children
SRF Tal & Punkt, 1981
Review of methodology with particular reference to the early identification of visual impairments and the evaluation of visual function in children with impaired vision and/or multiple handicaps.

Ighe, Siv
What you see and what you do not see: information and assessment material for people with low vision
Siv Ighe, 1988
ISBN 0952192101

International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation
Guide for the evaluation of visual impairment
Pacific Vision Foundation, 1999
Prepared for presentation at Vision 99, the 5th International Low Vision conference

Lee, Mary & MacWilliam, Lindi
Movement, gesture and sign: an interactive approach to sign communication for children who are visually impaired with additional disabilities
RNIB, 1995
ISBN 1858780683
Describes an approach to communication developed by staff at Royal Blind School, Edinburgh.  Illustrates how a child can develop skills in movement sessions & gradually acquire a sign system specially adapted for VI children.

Lindstedt, Eva
How well does a child see?  a guide on vision and vision assessment in children (2nd ed)
ELISYN, 1997
ISBN 9187062046

Lueck, Amanda Hall (ed)
Functional vision: a practitioner's guide to evaluation and intervention
AFB, 2004
ISBN 0891288716

Mangold, Sally S
Teachers' guide to the special educational needs of blind and visually handicapped children
AFB, 1982
ISBN 0891281088

McDonald, Mary
Which way? A guide for parents of children with multiple disabilities
RNIB, 2003
ISBN 1858785278
Part of the RNIB's Early years series of publications focusing on the more complex issues that can arise for children with sight problems who have other special needs.

Mills, Anne E (Ed)
Language acquisition in the blind child: normal and deficient
Croom Helm, 1983
ISBN 0709917686
A collection of articles which discuss the impact of visual impairment on language acquisition and the study the role of vision in language.

Nielsen, Lilli
Functional & instruction scheme: the visually impaired child's early abilities, behaviour and learning
SIKON, 1990
ISBN 8750386115
Assessment scheme for the development of children with visual impairments.

Nielsen, Lilli
Functional scheme: Levels: 0-48 months
SIKON, 2000
ISBN 8760188933
A tool for assessing the developmental levels of a learner who irrespective of age and/or handicap(s) has developed to a level between birth and 48 months.

O'Neill, Damian
Perkins and Hansell's atlas of diseases of the eye
Churchill Livingstone, 1994
ISBN 0443048223

Precision Vision
Instruction manual for vision testing products
Precision Vision, n.d.
Instructions for using many of Lea Hyvarinen's tests.

Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB)
Neale analysis of reading ability (NARA): University of Birmingham Braille version
RNIB/NFER-Nelson, 1997
ISBN 0090006178
Includes: Print manual; Braille manual; Braille book of stories (Form 1); Braille book of stories (Form 2); Braille optional diagnostic test for stories 1 & 2 and 2 packs of Record forms for forms 1 and 2

Rubin, Edmund Joseph
Abstract functioning in the blind
AFB, 1964
AFB Research Series; No 11

Scholl Geraldine & Schnur, Ronald
Measures of psychological, vocational & educational functioning in the blind & visually handicapped
AFB, 1976
ISBN 0891280006
A manual which deals with instruments that have been or are being used in assessing children and adults with visual impairments.

Schools Council Visual Perception Training Project
Look and think : teachers' file
Schools Council, 1979

Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum
Support for learning: Special Educational Needs within the 5-14 curriculum: Part 1: Sharing ideas; Part 2: Providing support; Part 3: Developing the 5-14 curriculum for pupils with SEN
SCCC, [1995]
A4 ring-binder. Part 3 No 2 (Visual Impairment).

Smith, Audrey J & Cote, Karen Shane
Look at me: a resource manual for the development of residual vision in children with multiple disabilities
Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 1982
Aimed for use with children who have a visual impairment or who are multiply disabled and visually impaired.  The program describes visual stimulation techniques by use of case studies.

Smith, Audrey J & O'Donnell, Lizabeth M
Beyond arm's reach: enhancing distance vision
Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 1992
Maximising visual potential through understanding and utilising visual information at a distance.  The programme is designed for visually impaired children who, at minimum, demonstrate light projection, gross object or form perception.

Southwell, Catherine
Assessing functional vision: children with complex needs
RNIB, 2003
ISBN 1858785987

Stockley, Jennifer & Richardson, Peter
Profile of adaptive skills (social skills)
RNIB, nd
ISBN 0901797618
A rating scale for assessing progressive personal and social development in young people with visual impairment/ learning difficulties. Profile handbook, profile assessment forms

Taubenhaus, Leon J & Jackson, Anne A
Vision screening of preschool children
Charles C Thomas, 1969

Tobin, Michael J
Assessing visually handicapped people: an introduction to test procedures
David Fulton, 1994
ISBN 1853462950



Best, Tony
Assessment procedures for use with young visually handicapped children (Part 1)
British Journal of Visual Impairment Autumn 1987, Vol 5 (3), p85,87-88
Assessment procedures can be used to establish a baseline of strengths and weaknesses for young visually handicapped students, to record changes  in students' performance, and to identify teaching steps. Selecting suitable assessment procedures requires consideration of their format, wording  of the items, subscales, developmental range, reliability and validity, etc.

Best, Tony
Assessment procedures for use with young visually handicapped children (Part 2)
British Journal of Visual Impairment Spring 1988, Vol 6 (1), p7-10
Twenty-five assessment packages for use with young visually handicapped children are listed and briefly described. Most of the packages assess general skills, while others focus on language, mobility, and vision  assessments. Guidelines are presented for using the assessment procedures.

Gense, Marilyn & Gense, D Jay
Jumping in ... : some basic principles to guide the educational team in assessing children with autism spectrum disorders and visual impairments
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p18-20
An overview of assessing children with autism and visual impairments.

Little, Suzanne
Putting assessment into everyday practice
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p15-17
Describes one school's multidisciplinary approach to assessment based on the "Vision for Doing" assessment tool.

Robinson, Maureen
Using video in multi-agency assessment
Eye Contact Spring 2005, No 41, p15-16
A multidisciplinary team use video assessment to ensure appropriate support for very young children with visual impairments.

Salt, Alison ... [et al]
Development of a monitoring protocol: a developmental guide for infants with visual impairment 0-36 months
Insight Mar/Apr 2006, No 2, p34-35
A team at Great Ormond Street Hospital have been working on a new  developmental monitoring protocol for infants and young children (0-36 months) with severe visual impairment.

Southwell, Catherine
See for yourself: observing the visual skills of young children and those with communication difficulties
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p11-14
Explores the challenge of assessing the functional vision of children who have communication dificulties.

Vervloed, Mathijs; Hamers, Jo; van Mens-Weisz, Marion; Timmer-Van de Vosse, Hanneke
New age levels of the Reynell-Zinkin developmental scales for young children with visual impairments
Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness Oct 2000, Vol 94, p613-624
Looks at the Reynell-Zinkin developmental test.

Charting visual and tactile perceptions in children: In-Sight and Tactual profile
Visability Autumn 2005, No 45, p13-17
Outlines two tests produced by Visio in the Netherlands.


Tests: Acuity

BUST-D pack: near vision pack and distance vision pack
Near vision pack: Cards Size 0-9 of B,C,D,E; Objects Scissors(B), Glasses(C), Spoon(D), Fork(E); Article "BUST staircase procedure" and LEA cards Distance vision pack: Cards Size 1-9 of B,C,D; Sizes 1-5,7,8 of E; Standard table, Protocol 1&2, Conversion/Comparison Tables, Bust-H playing cards manual.

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Cambridge crowding cards
Clement Clarke International, nd
Contains two crowding card books, velcro board and letters, measuring tape, left eye-patch glasses, right eye-patch glasses and instruction sheet

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Ffooks symbols test
Clement Clarke International, nd

Hyvärinen, Lea
3-d symbol set
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2516 Double-sided board with four symbol blocks

Hyvärinen, Lea
9 line horizontal translucent distance chart
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2523 Distance chart, instruction sheet and set of symbol cards

Hyvärinen, Lea
9 line wide spaced translucent distance chart
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2505 Distance chart, instruction sheet and set of symbol cards

Hyvärinen, Lea
Crowded symbol book
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2507 Symbol book, instruction booklet and set of symbol cards

Hyvärinen, Lea
Lea gratings (visual acuity test): small, medium and large face stimulus paddle
Precision Vision, nd
Cat Nos: 2530, 2531, 2532

Hyvärinen, Lea
Pocket-sized near vision card
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2509 (Same as 2508 except smaller) Card and instruction booklet

Hyvärinen, Lea
Single symbol book
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2506 Symbol book, instruction booklet and set of symbol cards

Kay Pictures
Kay picture test
Kay Pictures, 1993
Includes Three metre book, Key cards, Screening book, Crowded near test card, Screening near test cards, Near vision test cards, recognition booklets, fixation sticks, squeaky animals and animal torches.

Cardiff Acuity test
Keeler, nd

Revised Sheridan Gardiner test of visual acuity for young or retarded children
Keeler, nd

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) distance visual acuity charts
University of California, 1978
High and low contrast set comprising 2 plastic cards. Bailey Lovie charts 4,5,6,7.

Sheridan, Mary D
Stycar vision
NFER-Nelson, 1976

Sonksen, Patricia M & Silver, Janet
Sonksen-Silver Acuity System
Keeler, nd
Screening/Diagnostic booklet 18-3, Near card, Key card, Training booklet, Pointer, Diagnostic booklet 60-24 and instruction manual


Tests: Acuity for Reading

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Maclure reading type for children
Clement Clarke International, nd
Various test types taken from the Ladybird key words reading scheme.

Thomas the tank engine: a reading type for children
Hamblin, nd
Excerpts from Thomas the tank engine presented in 7 print sizes.

Reading test types
Keeler, nd

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) word reading charts
University of California, 1979
Near vision acuity test. Comprising 5 cards.


Tests: Colour Vision

Farnsworth D-15 test: resource pack (colour vision test)
Farnsworth, nd
A modification of the Farnsworth 100 hue test, more suitable for screening purposes.

Fletcher, Robert
City university colour vision test (2nd edition)
Keeler, 1980  

Fletcher-Hamblin Test
Simplified colour vision test  (Fletcher-Hamblin Test)
Keeler, 1991
Leather wallet with 3 colour tiles, instructions and score cards.

Hyvärinen, Lea
Quantitative color vision test: PV-16
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2603 16 Colour discs, 17 restriction rings, recording forms and manual (x2)

Ishihara, Shinobu
Ishihara's tests for colour deficiency (38 plates)
Kanehara Trading Inc, 2001
Isshinkai Foundation

Ishihara, Shinobu
Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness (38 plates)
Kanehara & Co, 1983
Isshinkai Foundation

Matsubara, Hiro
Colour vision test plates for the infants
Handaya, nd


Tests: Contrast Sensitivity

Hyvärinen, Lea
Enhancement of low contrast vision game
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2528 4 packs of 16 low contrast domino cards and instruction sheet

Hyvärinen, Lea
Heidi expressions: test game (low contrast, facial recognition)
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2545 Includes three sets of 18 pictures (full contrast, 10% contrast and 2.5% contrast) and instruction sheet

Hyvärinen, Lea
Hiding Heidi: low contrast "face" test
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2535  Includes 4 plastic cards and instructions

Hyvärinen, Lea
Lea symbol screener (contrast sensitivity, near vision and distance vision)
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2522 Screener charts, manual, recording forms and set of symbol cards

Wilkins, A J & Robson, J G
Cambridge low contrast gratings
Clement Clarke International, nd


Tests: Field of Vision

Hyvärinen, Lea
Extrafoveal fixation recorder
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2553 Includes pad of test sheets, fixation target and instruction sheet

Amsler charts manual
Keeler, nd
Field of vision test


Tests: Functional

Anderson, Sharon; Boigon, Sue; Davis, Kris
Oregon project: for visually impaired & blind preschool children
Jackson Education Service District, 1991
Fifth edition.  A4 ring binder & booklet.

James, Merle; Plant, Gordon T; Warrington, Elizabeth K
CORVIST: Cortical vision screening test
Thames Valley Test Company, 2001
ISBN 1874261717
Includes Manual and test materials book, viewing aperture and score sheets

Kinsley-Crisp, Ronald
Do you have a child with a visual dysfunction in your classroom?
JAG Enterprises, 1998
Manual and assessment kit for use by teachers in mainstream schools who have children with learning difficulties and/or behavioural problems, but who are not regarded as visually impaired. Kit includes eye dominance, distance & near vision, colour and paper glare tests and coloured overlays.

Newland, T Ernest
Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT)
Includes Manual, 2 articles and test sheets

Nielsen, Lilli
FIELA curriculum: 730 learning environments = The flexible individual enriched level appropriate curriculum
SIKON, 1998
ISBN 8760175338
Comprises a book, a catalogue and a velcro board, made to ensure that the child with one or several disabilities can access an individual learning programme which will match his developmental level, his needs for learning and his interests.

Stillman, Robert
Callier-Azusa Scale
Callier Center  for Communication Disorders, 1977
Assessment of deafblind and multisensory impaired


Tests: Intelligence

Dekker, Riet
Intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC) aged 6 - 15
Bartiméus, 1989
Contains 3 manuals, 5 record forms, ringbinder, video, 5 tactile books, 14 colour cards, 10 white cards, 5 boxes of shapes/objects, 7 miscellaneous boards. Kept in cupboard.


Tests: Light Adaptation

Hyvärinen, Lea
Cone adaptation test
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2529 15 Colour chips and instruction sheet


Tests: Stereo Vision

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Frisby Stereotest
Clement Clarke International, nd

Lang, J
Lang-stereotest 1
Clement Clarke International, nd
1 test card and instructions


Tests: Vision Therapy

Ann Arbor tracking program: Letter tracking: Book 1
Ann Arbor, 1975
ISBN 0878797251
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination.

Ann Arbor tracking program: Sentence tracking
Ann Arbor, 1987
ISBN 0878797483
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Bernell Corporation
Visual discrimination and memory (Vision Tutor Home Training Series)
Bernell Corporation, 1990
Workbook to enhance visual perception skills.  Series: Vision Tutor Home Training Series

Kratoville, Betty Lou
Word tracking: high frequency words
Ann Arbor, 1993
ISBN 0878798706
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Kratoville, Betty Lou
Word tracking: limericks
Ann Arbor, 1989
ISBN 0878798846
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Northway, Nadia
Visual motor and perceptual skills therapy II: improve visual memory, visual discrimination, visual spatial skills and left, right reversals
Rainbow Readers, 2005
Exercises to help visual motor and perceptual skills, suitable for children aged 5 upwards.

Northway, Nadia
Visual motor and perceptual skills therapy: improve tracking, visual discrimination, visual spatial skills and left, right reversals
Rainbow Readers, 2005
Exercises to help visual motor and perceptual skills, suitable for children aged 5 upwards.

Richman, Jack E & Garcia, Ralph P
Developmental eye movement test (DEM)
Bernell Corporation, 1987
Includes text booklet, examiner's booklet, test box and scoresheets.  Examines how the subject's eye moves.