University of Edinburgh

Multi-Sensory Referencing & Objects of Reference for Children and Young People with Complex Needs and Sensory Impairments


Bloom, Ylana
Object symbols: a communication option
North Rocks Press, 1990
About the use of object symbols to develop early requesting behaviour in non-verbal students.

Fowler, Susan
Multisensory rooms and environments: controlled sensory experiences for people with profound and multiple disabilities
Jessica Kingsley, 2008
A practical guide to using multisensory environments with ideas and strategies including low cost solutions.

Miles, Barbara & Riggio, Marianne
Remarkable conversations: a guide to developing meaningful communication with children and young adults who are deafblind
Perkins School for the Blind, 1999
ISBN 0965717011
This book addresses the needs of children of all abilities, ranging from non-linguistic (objects and body movements) to linguistic (sign or written) forms of communication. Gives practical approaches for creating communication-rich environments.

Nunez, Maria
Joint attention in deafblind children: a multisensory path towards a shared sense of the world
Sense, [2014]
This project looked at the use of sensory modalities in the early communication of 14 deafblind children.

Ockelford, Adam
Objects of reference: promoting early symbolic communication (3rd ed)
RNIB, 2002
ISBN 1858785294
Promoting concept development and communication skills with visually impaired children who have learning difficulties.

Pagliano, Paul
Multisensory environments
David Fulton, 1999
ISBN 1853465534
A textbook approach to multisensory environments, looking at the background, design & construction, curriculum development, future possibilities and research.

Pagliano, Paul
Using a multisensory environment: a practical guide for teachers
David Fulton, 2001
This book provides teachers and therapists with a user-friendly bank of ideas and suggestions for use in the MSE for pupils with profound and multiple learning difficulties. (Series: Resource materials for teachers)

Wyman, Rosalind
Making sense together: practical approaches to supporting children who have multisensory impairments
Souvenir Press, 2000
ISBN 0285635107
Update and partial rewrite of "Multiply handicapped children"


Bolt, Jonathan
'Once upon a time ...': Dinosaurs, the literacy hour and objects of reference
Eye Contact
Autumn 1999, No 25, p11-12
Sensory stories and literacy for children with multiple disabilities.

Damen, Saskia
Stimulating intersubjective communication in an adult with deafblindness: a single-case experiment
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
July 2014, Vol 19 (3), p366-384
Case study of a young person who is deafblind and has learning disabilities. Study looked at how the young person perceived himself and others and how this affects communication.

Hodges, Liz
Listening to the child's voice
Talking Sense
Summer 2008, Vol 54 (2), p34-35
Describes a process that can help those working with children with very limited communication to understand their choices and preferences.