University of Edinburgh

The materials on this list are available from

Bibliography - Assessing Vision in Children with Additional Support Needs: Why and How?


Aitken, Stuart & Buultjens, Marianna
Vision for doing: assessing functional vision of learners who are multiply disabled (Sensory Series No 2)
Moray House Publications, 1992
ISBN: 0901580392
Result of 4-year study based on research & in-service work from schools, adult training centres etc. For all who work with young VI & multiply disabled people. Sensory Series No 2.

Chapman, Elizabeth K; Tobin, Michael J; Tooze, F H; Moss, S
Look and think: a handbook for teachers
RNIB, 1989
ISBN: 0901797502
Visual perception training for VI children (5-11). Contains information about procedures & materials for use at home & school to encourage young VI children to use their remaining vision more efficiently.

Goodman, Stephen A & Wittenstein, Stuart H
Collaborative assessment: working with students who are blind or visually impaired, including those with additional disabilities
AFB, 2003
ISBN: 0891288694

Hyvärinen, Lea
Assessment of low vision for educational purposes and early intervention: Part II: visually impaired children with other disabilities
Precision Vision, 1997
ISBN: 952519602X
An overview of assessing vision in children with other disabilities such as deafblindness, developmental delays, motor disabilities, brain damage and learning disabilities.

Hyvärinen, Lea
Vision testing manual: 1995-1996
Precision Vision, 1995
Binder of information about all of Lea Hyvärinen tests including instruction leaflets. Cat No: 2803 International course for Low Vision therapists

Kurtz, Lisa A
Visual perception problems in children with AD/HD, autism and other learning disabilities: a guide for parents and professionals
Jessica Kingsley, 2006
ISBN: 9781843108269
Looks at some of the visual problems that children who have ADHD, autism, etc, may experience, particularly the more subtle visual problems they may experience.

Lindstedt, Eva
How well does a child see? a guide on vision and vision assessment in children (2nd ed)
ELISYN, 1997
ISBN: 9187062046
Outlines methods for assessing functional vision of a child irrespective of additional disabilities.

Lueck, Amanda Hall (ed)
Functional vision: a practitioner's guide to evaluation and intervention
AFB, 2004
ISBN: 0891288716
To help professionals gain a better understanding of methods used to evaluate and work with functional vision.

Precision Vision
Instruction manual for vision testing products
Precision Vision, nd
Instructions for using many of Lea Hyvarinen's tests. In reference collection.

Southwell, Catherine
Assessing functional vision: children with complex needs
RNIB, 2003
ISBN: 1858785987

Southwell, Catherine & Johnson, Stevie
Visual impairment and orthoptics (clinical and functional vision assessment): the best of both: working together to support children with visual impairment and additional complex needs
RNIB, 2010
One of a series of leaflets exploring ways that the QTVI (Qualified Teacher of Visually Impaired children) and other professionals can achieve an effective working relationship together and ensure the best outcome for children with special requirements.



Bell, Judy; Naish, Lucy; Stalker, Louise
Integrated approach to vision assessment and recording
Insight Sept/Oct 2011, No 35, p19-21
Describes systems for co-ordinating vision assessment results for people who have complex needs.

Brown, David
Assessment of visual functioning in children with complex multiple disabilities
Eye Contact Summer 1998, No 21, p5-7
Advises on functional vision assessments for children with multiple disabilities.

Gense, Marilyn & Gense, D Jay
Jumping in ... : some basic principles to guide the educational team in assessing children with autism spectrum disorders and visual impairments
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p18-20
An overview of assessing children with autism and visual impairments.

Kurtz, Lisa
Visual perception problems
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p36-39
A range of activities for promoting the development of functional vision and perceptual skills for children who have difficulty understanding and interpreting the information they see.

Little, Suzanne
Putting assessment into everyday practice
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p15-17
Describes one school's multidisciplinary approach to assessment based on the "Vision for Doing" assessment tool.

Masters, Anne
Planning for a sight test: my way
Focus June 1997, No 21, p1-8
Describes the challenges of giving eye tests to people with learning difficulties.

McLeish, Eve
LogMAR ... so what's that in old money?
Insight Mar/Apr 2008, No 14, p33-35
A clear explanation of the new standard for measuring acuity.

Olma, John
Assessing functional vision using the iPad
Insight Sep/Oct 2012, No 41, p23-25
Discusses apps which offer visual stimulation and demonstrate functional vision as well as standard vision tests.

Southwell, Catherine
"But what can they really see?"
Eye Contact Summer 1998,No 21, p17-20
Functional vision assessments for children with multiple disabilities and their impact on learning

Southwell, Catherine
See for yourself: observing the visual skills of young children and those with communication difficulties
Insight Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p11-14
Explores the challenge of assessing the functional vision of children who have communication difficulties.

Woodhouse, Maggie
In perspective
Insight Jul/Aug 2012, No 40, p33
Discusses the differences in results that can be found by using various acuity tests.




Hyvärinen, Lea
3-d symbol set
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2516 Double-sided board with four symbol blocks

Hyvärinen, Lea
Crowded symbol book
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2507 Symbol book, instruction booklet and set of symbol cards

Hyvärinen, Lea
Lea gratings (visual acuity test)
Precision Vision, nd
Includes 4 paddles: 0.0cpcm; 0.25-0.5cpcm; 1.0-2.0cpcm; 4.0-8.0cpcm and an instruction leaflet

Kay Pictures
Kay picture test
Kay Pictures, 1993
Includes Three metre book, Key cards, Screening book, Crowded LogMAR book, Crowded near test card, Screening near test cards, Near vision test cards, recognition booklets, fixation sticks, squeaky animals, animal torches, Rubber finder toys, Occlusion glasses and Instruction leaflets.

Cardiff Acuity test
Keeler, nd

Revised Sheridan Gardiner test with Orthoptic booklets
Keeler, nd
Well established test designed for children but suitable for disabled people, those with learning difficulties or patients who do not share a common language with the examiner. Contains Revised booklet, 4 orthoptic booklets, transparent key chart, reduced Snellen chart, standard Snellen chart and instructions.

Lindstedt, Eva
BUST-D pack: near vision pack and distance vision pack
Eva Lindstedt, 1986
Near vision pack: Cards Size 0-9 of B,C,D,E; Objects Scissors(B), Glasses(C), Spoon(D), Fork(E); Article "BUST staircase procedure" and LEA cards Distance vision pack: Cards Size 1-9 of B,C,D; Sizes 1-5,7,8 of E; Standard table, Protocol 1&2, Conversion/Comparison Tables, Bust-H playing cards manual.

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) distance visual acuity charts
University of California, 1978
High and low contrast set comprising 2 plastic cards. Bailey Lovie charts 4,5,6,7.

Sheridan, Mary D
Stycar vision
NFER-Nelson, 1976

Sonksen, Patricia M & Silver, Janet
Sonksen-Silver Acuity System
Keeler, n.d.
Screening/Diagnostic booklet 18-3, Near card, Key card, Training booklet, Pointer, Diagnostic booklet 60-24 and instruction manual


Acuity for Reading

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Maclure reading type for children
Clement Clarke International, n.d.
Various test types taken from the Ladybird key words reading scheme.

Thomas the tank engine: a reading type for children
Hamblin, nd
Excerpts from Thomas the tank engine presented in 7 print sizes.

Reading test types
Keeler, nd

McGraw, Paul & Winn, Barry
LogMAR crowded test
Keeler, 1993
Includes features which should allow change in letter acuity to be detected in preschool children especially those undergoing vision therapy training. Includes three sets of charts, a key card and a booklet.

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) word reading charts
University of California, 1979
Near vision acuity test. Comprising 5 cards.


Colour Vision

Farnsworth D-15 test: resource pack (colour vision test)
Farnsworth, n.d.
A modification of the Farnsworth 100 hue test, more suitable for screening purposes.

Fletcher, Robert
City university colour vision test (2nd edition)
Keeler, 1980

Hyvärinen, Lea
Quantitative color vision test: PV-16
Precision Vision, n.d.
Cat No: 2603 16 Colour discs, 17 restriction rings, recording forms and manual (one set has clear perspex box)

Matsubara, Hiro
Colour vision test plates for the infants
Handaya, nd.


Contrast Sensitivity

Hyvärinen, Lea
Heidi expressions: test game (low contrast, facial recognition)
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2545 Includes three sets of 18 pictures (full contrast, 10% contrast and 2.5% contrast) and instruction sheet

Hyvärinen, Lea
Hiding Heidi: low contrast "face" test
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2535 Includes 4 plastic cards and instructions

Hyvärinen, Lea
Lea symbol screener (contrast sensitivity, near vision and distance vision)
Precision Vision, nd
Cat No: 2522 Screener charts, manual, recording forms and set of symbol cards

Wilkins, A J & Robson, J G
Cambridge low contrast gratings
Clement Clarke International, nd
A simple, rapid screening test for contrast sensitivity.


Field of Vision

Amsler charts manual
Keeler, nd.



Kinsley-Crisp, Ronald
Do you have a child with a visual dysfunction in your classroom?
JAG Enterprises, 1998
Manual and assessment kit for use by teachers in mainstream schools who have children with learning difficulties and/or behavioural problems, but who are not regarded as visually impaired. Kit includes eye dominance, distance & near vision, colour and paper glare tests and coloured overlays.


Stereo Vision

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Frisby Stereotest
Clement Clarke International, nd

Lang, J
Lang-stereotest 1
Clement Clarke International, nd
1 test card and instructions

Stereo Optical
Wirt fly stereotest
Stereo Optical, 1994
An easily administered check of stereoscopic depth perception for any age level.


Vision Therapy

Richman, Jack E & Garcia, Ralph P
Developmental eye movement test (DEM)
Bernell Corporation, 1987
Includes text booklet, examiner's booklet, test box and scoresheets. Examines how the subject's eye moves.