University of Edinburgh

Teaching Braille to Learners with a Visual Impairment


Agelii, Margareta & Ronnback, Anders
Teaching Braille to beginners by using a computer
Tomteboda Resource Centre, 1998
ISSN 1103-5080
Pupils were studied using a braille keyboard with a PC to see the effect this equipment had on their reading and writing and any social effects within the mainstream classroom. TRC Report No 17, ISRN TRC-R--17--SE

Berry, Nigel
Sense and sensitivity: how to teach braille effectively
RNIB, 2009
ISBN 9781444500394
A practitioner's guide on how to teach Braille reading and writing to young people and adults who have lost their sight.

Danielson, Ena
Mathematics in Braille: a reference book for teachers and students
RVIB, 1991
ISBN 094939002X
RVIB Burwood Educational Series No 3.

Danielson, Ena
Teach yourself to sight read Braille: a workbook
RVIB, 1990
ISBN 0949390054
RVIB Burwood Educational Series No 6.

Danielson, Ena & Lamb, Gayle
Beginning reading/writing for Braille or print users: a teacher's guide to the psycholinguistic viewpoint
RVIB, 1983
ISBN 0949390046
RVIB Burwood Educational Series No 5.

Keil, Sue & Clunies-Ross, Louise
Report of research study into teaching braille to children in schools
RNIB, 2002
A study arising from concerns that there is a decline in braille use in schools in Britain.

Lorimer, Pam
Reading in Braille: an introductory source for teachers (2nd ed)
RNIB, 1994
ISBN 1858780446
Covers a wide range of topics relating to braille reading, including background, research, methods and resources for teaching braille.

McCall, Steve; McLinden, Mike; Douglas, Graeme
Review of the literature into effective practice in teaching literacy through braille
University of Birmingham, 2011
A literature review of braille literacy, gathering information on current braille reading schemes, application of findings to UK context, and recommendations to maximise impact on educational practice and teacher training.

Millar, Susanna
Reading by touch
Routledge, 1997
ISBN 041506838X
Examines the perceptual, linguistic and cognitive processes involved in reading by touch. Draws on research with novice and fluent braille readers. Other tactile systems are also considered.

Olson, Myrna R
Guidelines and games for teaching efficient Braille reading
AFB, 1981
ISBN 0891281053
Intended for parents, pre-school workers and teachers of the visually impaired to help young learners acquire Braille skills

Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB)
Neale analysis of reading ability (NARA): University of Birmingham Braille version
RNIB/NFER-Nelson, 1997
ISBN 0090006178
Includes: Print manual; Braille manual; Braille book of stories (Form 1); Braille book of stories (Form 2); Braille optional diagnostic test for stories 1 & 2 and 2 packs of Record forms for forms 1 and 2

Simpson, Christine (ed)
Rules of unified English braille
Round Table on Information Access for People with Print Disabilities, 2010
ISBN 9780980706413
An authoritative and complete elaboration of the rules of Unified English Braille (UEB). Outlines the differences between Standard English Braille/English Braille American Edition and UEB.

Swenson, Anna & D'Andrea, Frances Mary
Braille trail: an activity book
AFB, 2002
ISBN 0891288546
A set of games, puzzles and other activities intended to show children the meaning and importance of Braille. Accompanied by a parent/teacher guide.

Swenson, Anna M
Beginning with Braille: firsthand experiences with a balanced approach to literacy
AFB, 1999
ISBN 0891283234
Creative and practical strategies for designing and delivering high-quality Braille literacy instruction.

Wormsley, Diane P
Braille literacy: a functional approach
AFB, 2003
ISBN 0891288767
Describes approaches to teaching braille reading and writing to children (and adults) taking the individual learner's needs into account.

Wormsley, Diane P & D'Andrea, Frances Mary
Instructional strategies for Braille literacy
AFB, 1997
ISBN 0891289364
Collects a wide range of experience and practical strategies for teaching braille to learners.


Coming soon: the unified English braille code (UEB)
March/April 2012, No 38, p32-34
An introduction to UEB with commentary from teachers.

Remarkable story of Alexia Sloane
Jan/Feb 2011, No 31, p16-17
Alexia won the RNIB's essay competition with an essay on "How braille changed my life" Ten year old Alexia is trilingual (English/Spanish/French) and is now learning Chinese.

Arter, Christine
Braille dyslexia: does it exist?
British Journal of Visual Impairment
May 1998, Vol 16 (2), p61-64
Research into why some intelligent blind pupils are failing when it comes to reading and opens the discussion on the concept of 'Braille dyslexia'.

Arter, Christine
Braille dyslexia: does it exist?
Spring 1995, No 13, p11-12
An investigation of the possibility of Braille dyslexia in children who succeed in many areas of the curriculum but have unexplained difficulties with reading braille.

Brackenridge, Elaine & Sugden, Janis
Introducing braille: taking the risk
Sept/Oct 2011, No 35, p27-29
Discusses the first steps to beginning braille with young children.

Clarke, Anne
Visual impairment and autistic spectrum condition: learning braille
Nov/Dec 2010, No 30, p9-12
Looks at how an autistic child's love of reading in braille helped her to develop social awareness and understanding.

Coppins, Natasha & Barlow-Brown, Fiona
Reading difficulties in blind, braille-reading children
British Journal of Visual Impairment
January 2006, Vol 24 (1) p37-39
Describes a new project where the problems that children have reading Braille will be analysed.

Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah
Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 1: Examination by technical expert Braille users
British Journal of Visual Impairment
September 2013 , Vol 31 (3), p228-237
To inform the decision about UK adoption, a suite of research was carried out with UK braille readers and other stakeholders. Previous research indicates that readers of technical braille codes may be most affected by a move to UEB.

Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah
Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2: Examination by literary Braille users, Braille teachers, and transcribers
British Journal of Visual Impairment
September 2013, Vol 31 (3), p238-247
To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders - student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers.

Fellows, Janice
Fantastic fingers
Jan/Feb 2010, No 25, p26-28
Pre-braille skills for young visually impaired children

Gentle, Frances; Steer, Michael; Howse, Josie
New dots Downunder: the implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australian schools
British Journal of Visual Impairment
September 2012, Vol 30 (3), p197-200
A commentary on implementing Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australia.

Gonzalez Garcia, Luis
Assessment of text reading comprehension by Spanish-speaking blind persons
British Journal of Visual Impairment
January 2004, Vol 22 (1), p4-12
Reading comprehension of visually impaired people using Braille.

Greaney, John & Reason, Rea
Braille reading by children: Is there a phonological explanation for their difficulties?
British Journal of Visual Impairment
January 2000, Vol 18 (1), p35-40
Comparative study of 2 braille learners looking at phonological awareness as a factor in successful reading skills.

Holbrook, Cay
Print or Braille? Choosing the best medium for young learners
Jul/Aug 2007, No 10, p10-13
Looks at the factors involved in choosing to teach visually impaired children to read by Braille or print.

Ingraham, Cynthia L & Andrews, Jean F
Hands and reading: What deafblind adult readers tell us
British Journal of Visual Impairment
May 2010, Vol 28 (2), p130-138
Study of three deafblind adults who read successfully to analyse their different strategies for reading.

Jennings Julie
Interpreting the latest phonics guidelines
May/Jun 2008, No 15, p23-24
Looks at the teaching of phonics and how this relates to young learners of Braille.

Keil, Sue & Cobb, Rory
Braille literacy: new report
Oct/Dec 2011, No 36, p30-31
A research review of teaching braille literacy.

Keil, Sue & Cobb, Rory
What is the teaching assistant's role in teaching braille?
Jan/Feb 2012, No 37, p11-13
Looks at the research which covers the teaching assistant's role when children are being taught braille.

Lamb, Gayle
Dots for tots: emergent literacy and Braille reading
British Journal of Visual Impairment
September 1998, Vol 16 (3), p111-115
Looks at the development of pre-reading skills for young children who will be using braille and the development of literacy.

Leong, Susan
Adding more spice to a braille literacy programme
Autumn 2005, No 45, p5-7
Tried and tested activities for children when learning braille and to improve literacy.

Lumley, Peter
Early Braille literacy
May/June 2006, No 3, p12-17
Follows a young blind pupil as she progresses through her first term at a mainstream primary.

Macleod, Sharon
Fantastic fingers
May/Jun 2014, No 51, p34
How do you introduce pre-braille skills to a child who doesn't like to touch?

Nobel, Betty
Uniform Braille code for English
The Educator
Jan 2009, Vol XXI (2), p23-25
Looks at the rationale for moving towards and developing Unified English Braille.

Randall, Alice Chenneour
Working with learners with specific Braille learning difficulties
Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p30-32
An investigation into possible dyslexia experienced by some Braille users.

Rogers, Sue
Learning Braille and print together: the mainstream issues
British Journal of Visual Impairment
May 2007, Vol 25 (2), p120-132
A study of children in mainstream schools who are accessing the curriculum using a combination of Braille and print resources.

Stone, Juliet
Reading through Braille
Spring 1995, No 13, p5-6
Describes the issues encountered by children learning Braille.

Wilson, Claire
Encouraging braillists to become bookworms: what's new ... and what next?
Spring 1999, No 25, p15
An update on reading schemes for children who are learning to read Braille.

Wilson, Claire
Measuring literacy achievement
Jul/Aug 2009, No 22, p12-13
Explores issues surrounding Braille literacy and the mainstream curriculum.