University of Edinburgh

Introduction to Assessing Children & Young People with Visual Impairment


Aitken, Stuart & Buultjens, Marianna
Vision for doing: assessing functional vision of learners who are multiply disabled (Sensory Series No 2)
Moray House Publications, 1992
ISBN 0901580392
Result of 4-year study based on research & in-service work from schools, adult training centres etc. For all who work with young VI & multiply disabled people. Sensory Series No 2.

Chapman, Elizabeth K; Tobin, Michael J; Tooze, F H; Moss, S
Look and think: a handbook for teachers
RNIB, 1989
ISBN 0901797502
Visual perception training for VI children (5-11). Contains information about procedures & materials for use at home & school to encourage young VI children to use their remaining vision more efficiently.

Goodman, Stephen A & Wittenstein, Stuart H
Collaborative assessment: working with students who are blind or visually impaired, including those with additional disabilities
AFB, 2003
ISBN 0891288694
Looks at ways in which you can obtain valid assessments of students who are visually impaired and suggests ways to foster collaboration among professionals responsible for those assessments.

Hill, Eileen
Assessing the visually impaired: an annotated bibliography of educational, vocational and psychological tests and procedures
University of Birmingham, 1994

Hyvarinen, Lea
Vision testing manual: 1995-1996
Precision Vision, 1995
Cat No: 2803 International course for Low Vision therapists

Lindstedt, Eva
How well does a child see? a guide on vision and vision assessment in children (2nd ed)
ELISYN, 1997
ISBN 9187062046
Outlines methods for assessing functional vision of a child irrespective of additional disabilities.

Lueck, Amanda Hall (ed)
Functional vision: a practitioner's guide to evaluation and intervention
AFB, 2004
ISBN 0891288716
To help professionals gain a better understanding of methods used to evaluate and work with functional vision.

Nielsen, Lilli
Functional scheme: Levels: 0-48 months
SIKON, 2000
ISBN 8760188933
A tool for assessing the developmental levels of a learner who irrespective of age and/or handicap(s) has developed to a level between birth and 48 months.

Eye see a dragon in the glen
One Vision Dragon Books, 2012
ISBN 9780957492806
Children's story about a character who has vision problems and incorporates a couple of simple tests (near acuity and stereovision).

Precision Vision
Instruction manual for vision testing products
Precision Vision, n.d.
Instructions for using many of Lea Hyvarinen’s tests.

Southwell, Catherine
Assessing functional vision: children with complex needs
RNIB, 2003
ISBN 1858785987

Tobin, Michael J
Assessing visually handicapped people: an introduction to test procedures
David Fulton, 1994
ISBN 1853462950

Assessment Materials

Tests: Acuity

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Cambridge crowding cards
Clement Clarke International
Contains two crowding card books, velcro board and letters, measuring tape, left eye-patch glasses, right eye-patch glasses and instruction sheet

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Ffooks symbols test
Clement Clarke International

Hyvarinen, Lea
3-d symbol set
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2516 Double-sided board with four symbol blocks

Hyvarinen, Lea
9 line horizontal translucent distance chart
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2523 Distance chart, instruction sheet and set of symbol cards

Hyvarinen, Lea
9 line wide spaced translucent distance chart
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2505 Distance chart, instruction sheet and set of symbol cards

Hyvarinen, Lea
Crowded symbol book
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2507 Symbol book, instruction booklet and set of symbol cards

Hyvarinen, Lea
Lea gratings (visual acuity test)
Precision Vision
Includes 4 paddles: 0.0cpcm; 0.25-0.5cpcm; 1.0-2.0cpcm; 4.0-8.0cpcm and an instruction leaflet

Hyvarinen, Lea
Lea gratings: fixation paddles
Precision Vision
Includes large, medium and small (x3) paddles: 0.25cpcm; 0.4cpcm; 1.0cpcm gratings on one side for preferential looking and 'Heidi' face on reverse. Features include corneal diameter measurement on the handle.

Hyvarinen, Lea
Pocket-sized near vision card
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2509 (Same as 2508 except smaller) Card and instruction booklet

Hyvarinen, Lea
Single symbol book
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2506 Symbol book, instruction booklet and set of symbol cards

Kay Pictures
Kay picture test
Kay Pictures
Includes Three metre book, Key cards, Screening book, Crowded LogMAR book, Crowded near test card, Screening near test cards, Near vision test cards, recognition booklets, fixation sticks, squeaky animals, animal torches, Rubber finder toys, Occlusion glasses and Instruction leaflets.

Cardiff Acuity test

Revised Sheridan Gardiner test with Orthoptic booklets
Well established test designed for children but suitable for disabled people, those with learning difficulties or patients who do not share a common language with the examiner. Contains Revised booklet, 4 orthoptic booklets, transparent key chart, reduced Snellen chart, standard Snellen chart and instructions.

Lindstedt, Eva
BUST-D pack: near vision pack and distance vision pack
Eva Lindstedt
Near vision pack: Cards Size 0-9 of B,C,D,E; Objects Scissors(B), Glasses(C), Spoon(D), Fork(E); LEA cards. Distance vision pack: Cards Size 1-9 of B,C,D; Sizes 1-5,7,8 of E; Standard table, Protocol 1&2, Conversion/Comparison Tables, Bust-H playing cards manual.

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) distance visual acuity charts
University of California
High and low contrast set comprising 2 plastic cards. Bailey Lovie charts 4,5,6,7.

Sheridan, Mary D
Stycar vision

Sonksen, Patricia M & Silver, Janet
Sonksen-Silver Acuity System
Screening/Diagnostic booklet 18-3, Near card, Key card, Training booklet, Pointer, Diagnostic booklet 60-24 and instruction manual

Tests: Acuity for Reading

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Maclure reading type for children
Clement Clarke International
Various test types taken from the Ladybird key words reading scheme.

Thomas the tank engine: a reading type for children
Excerpts from Thomas the tank engine presented in 7 print sizes.

Reading test types

McGraw, Paul & Winn, Barry
LogMAR crowded test
Includes features which should allow change in letter acuity to be detected in preschool children especially those undergoing vision therapy training. Includes three sets of charts, a key card and a booklet.

National Vision Research Institute of Australia
Bailey-Lovie (logMAR) word reading charts
University of California
Near vision acuity test. Comprising 5 cards.

Tests: Colour Vision

Farnsworth D-15 test: resource pack (colour vision test)
A modification of the Farnsworth 100 hue test, more suitable for screening purposes.

Fletcher-Hamblin Test
Simplified colour vision test (Fletcher-Hamblin Test)
Leather wallet with 3 colour tiles, instructions and score cards.

Fletcher, Robert
City university colour vision test (2nd edition)

Hyvarinen, Lea
Quantitative color vision test: PV-16
Precision Vision
Cat No: 260316 Colour discs, 17 restriction rings, recording forms and manual (one set has clear perspex box)

Ishihara, Shinobu
Ishihara's tests for colour deficiency (38 plates)
Kanehara Trading Inc
Isshinkai Foundation

Ishihara, Shinobu
Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness (38 plates)
Kanehara & Co
Isshinkai Foundation

Matsubara, Hiro
Colour vision test plates for the infants
Colour vision test plates comprising images of animals instead of the numbers in the Ishihara test.

Tests: Contrast Sensitivity

Hyvarinen, Lea
Enhancement of low contrast vision game
Precision Vision
4 packs of 16 low contrast domino cards and instruction sheet

Hyvarinen, Lea
Heidi expressions: test game (low contrast, facial recognition)
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2545 Includes three sets of 18 pictures (full contrast, 10% contrast and 2.5% contrast) and instruction sheet

Hyvarinen, Lea
Hiding Heidi: low contrast "face" test
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2535 Includes 4 plastic cards and instructions

Hyvarinen, Lea
Lea symbol screener (contrast sensitivity, near vision and distance vision)
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2522 Screener charts, manual, recording forms and set of symbol cards

Wilkins, A J & Robson, J G
Cambridge low contrast gratings
Clement Clarke International
A simple, rapid screening test for contrast sensitivity.

Tests: Field of Vision

Hyvarinen, Lea
Extrafoveal fixation recorder
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2553 Includes pad of test sheets, fixation target and instruction sheet

Amsler charts manual
Field of vision test

Tests: Functional

Anderson, Sharon; Boigon, Susan; Davis, Kristine; deWaard, Cheri
Oregon project: for preschool children who are blind or visually impaired (6th ed)
Jackson Education Service District
Monitoring and assessment of very young visually impaired children. A4 ring binder, CD-ROM & 5 Skills Inventory booklets.

James, Merle; Plant, Gordon T; Warrington, Elizabeth K
CORVIST: Cortical vision screening test
Thames Valley Test Company
ISBN 1874261717
Includes Manual and test materials book, viewing aperture and score sheets.

Kinsley-Crisp, Ronald
Do you have a child with a visual dysfunction in your classroom?
JAG Enterprises
Manual and assessment kit for use by teachers in mainstream schools who have children with learning difficulties and/or behavioural problems, but who are not regarded as visually impaired. Kit includes eye dominance, distance & near vision, colour and paper glare tests and coloured overlays.

Newland, T Ernest
Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT)
Includes Manual, 2 articles and test sheets

Nielsen, Lilli
FIELA curriculum: 730 learning environments = The flexible individual enriched level appropriate curriculum
ISBN 8760175338
Comprises a book, a catalogue and a velcro board, made to ensure that the child with one or several disabilities can access an individual learning programme which will match a child's developmental level, learning needs and interests.

Reynell, Joan
Reynell-Zinkin scales: Developmental scales for young visually handicapped children
Includes a Manual and Record sheet.

Tests: Intelligence

Dekker, Riet
Intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC) aged 6-15
Contains 3 manuals, 5 record forms, ringbinder, video, 5 tactile books, 14 colour cards, 10 white cards, 5 boxes of shapes/objects, 7 miscellaneous boards.

Tests: Light Adaptation

Hyvarinen, Lea
Cone adaptation test
Precision Vision
Cat No: 2529 15 Colour chips and instruction sheet

Tests: Stereo Vision

Clement Clarke International Ltd
Frisby Stereotest
Clement Clarke International

Lang, J
Lang-stereotest 1
Clement Clarke International
1 test card and instructions

Stereo Optical
Wirt fly stereotest
Stereo Optical
An easily administered check of stereoscopic depth perception for any age level.

Tests: Vision Therapy

Ann Arbor tracking program: Letter tracking: Book 1
Ann Arbor
ISBN 0878797251
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination.

Ann Arbor tracking program: Sentence tracking
Ann Arbor
ISBN 0878797483
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Bernell Corporation
Visual discrimination and memory (Vision Tutor Home Training Series)
Bernell Corporation
Workbook to enhance visual perception skills. Series: Vision Tutor Home Training Series

ESA Creative Learning
Visual discrimination material: Book 1: Pictures
ESA Creative learning
This card booklet provides graded exercises in visual discrimination.

Kratoville, Betty Lou
Word tracking: high frequency words
Ann Arbor
ISBN 0878798706
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Kratoville, Betty Lou
Word tracking: limericks
Ann Arbor
ISBN 0878798846
The program is designed to improve visual discrimination, reading and word recognition.

Northway, Nadia
Visual motor and perceptual skills therapy II: improve visual memory, visual discrimination, visual spatial skills and left, right reversals
Rainbow Readers
Exercises to help visual motor and perceptual skills, suitable for children aged 5 upwards.

Northway, Nadia
Visual motor and perceptual skills therapy: improve tracking, visual discrimination, visual spatial skills and left, right reversals
Rainbow Readers
Exercises to help visual motor and perceptual skills, suitable for children aged 5 upwards.

Richman, Jack E & Garcia, Ralph P
Developmental eye movement test (DEM)
Bernell Corporation
Includes text booklet, examiner's booklet, test box and scoresheets. Examines how the subject's eye moves.


Bairstow, Mary; Jennings, Julie; Johnson, Stevie
Aiming high for children with low vision
Jan/Feb 2014, No 49, p11-14
Explains the importance of low vision assessments.

Bell, Judy; Naish, Lucy; Stalker, Louise
Integrated approach to vision assessment and recording
Sept/Oct 2011, No 35, p19-21
Describes systems for co-ordinating vision assessment results for people who have complex needs.

Gense, Marilyn & Gense, D Jay
Jumping in ... : some basic principles to guide the educational team in assessing children with autism spectrum disorders and visual impairments
Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p18-20
An overview of assessing children with autism and visual impairments.

Harvey, Bill
What I'm saying is ...
Jan/Feb 2014, No 49, p28-30
An optometrist discusses the importance of listening to a young person when assessing their vision.

Little, Suzanne
Putting assessment into everyday practice
Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p15-17
Describes one school's multidisciplinary approach to assessment based on the "Vision for Doing" assessment tool.

Olma, John
Assessing functional vision using the iPad
Sep/Oct 2012, No 41, p23-25
Discusses apps which offer visual stimulation and demonstrate functional vision as well as standard vision tests.

Robinson, Maureen
Using video in multi-agency assessment
Eye Contact
Spring 2005, No 41, p15-16
A multidisciplinary team use video assessment to ensure appropriate support for very young children with visual impairments.

Southwell, Catherine
See for yourself: observing the visual skills of young children and those with communication difficulties
Jan/Feb 2007, No 7, p11-14
Explores the challenge of assessing the functional vision of children who have communication difficulties.

Woodhouse, Maggie
In perspective
Jul/Aug 2012, No 40, p33
Discusses the differences in results that can be found by using various acuity tests.