1For many years, Soviet dissidents were incarcerated in the far North of USSR. Psychiatric assessment was used to describe the dissidents as menatlly unstable.

2One of the early uses of IQ testing was to determine who would be allowed into the USA as immigrants. Poles, Slovaks, Lithuanians, Estonians and many more were herded together at Ellis Island. They were then given the Terman-Merrill IQ test. Needless to say those from another culture failed and were returned to their countries of origin. Ellis Island supports the Statue of Liberty.