University of Edinburgh
 

The Role of Vision in Learning

Presented on Friday 7 November 2008

Motor Aspects of Vision

Nadia Northway
PhD BA DBO SRO

Symptoms

  • Difficulty seeing text
  • Headache
  • Ocular pain
  • Fatigue
  • Rubbing eyes
  • Poor concentration
  • Erratic hand writing
  • Avoid reading
  • Lose place
  • Transposition of letters in words
  • Perceptual symptoms
  • Print moves
  • Blurring
  • Problems greater with small print
  • Distortion
  • Double vision
  • Glare patches on page
  • Difficulty with white board
  • Difficulty viewing the computer screen
  • Difficulty with bright sunlight

Motor Control of Vision

  • Convergence Insufficiency - ability to pull the eyes in
  • Low accommodation amplitudes - poor focusing
  • Scanning problems - tracking difficulties
  • Decompensating heterophoria - starting to squint
  • Low fusional reserves - ability to compensate for ocular drift
  • Eye Movement Difficulties

Binocular Vision: Taken for Granted

1. our eyes must be lined up so that they are both directed towards the same point
2. the images arriving at the brain must be matched together and integrated
3. The images must be clear and stay clear
4. The images must be kept clear and single

These skills result in proficient binocular vision.

Txt can be very hard to read if you have problems with stereo convergence.

Fact

Evidence supports a positive relationship between certain binocular anomalies and reading problems (Simons and Grisham 1987)

80% of children with visual symptoms associated with reading have problems that Orthoptists can treat (Fowler 2002)

85% of children struggling with writing showed evidence of poor tracking, poor binocular vision and poor eye movement control. ( Northway 2005)

60% of children with defective binocular vision performed poorly in SATs and achieved below teachers expectations (Shayler 2003)

Binocular Vision

binocular vision

Developmental eye movement test

  • Compare horizontal and vertical scanning ability
  • Gives age related performance
  • Can be used to determine efficacy of overlays- more sensitive to visual change than RRT (Northway 2003)

Examination with DEM

  • Use to assess efficacy of overlays and to assess tracking
  • If abnormal, that is, long times or poor ratio prescribe Rainbow Readers Book I.
  • If co-exists with MIS do exercises with overlay on top.
  • Can also use acereader in trainer mode to help tracking.

tracking

Therapy

Visuospatial memory

  • Often weak
  • Leads to problems with copying in classroom, loses place or takes long time to find next word or letter
  • Planning next movement difficult since do not have internal map

Visuospatial test

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hjklllyb ddsd fybp ppvuiy bpxicvjj;sgdiubguiduv;xk
jjhkjhu yvbyus ifybuifuye rbwprgyxvfjkslvinsouvnossssspf
djifdodi ugbuiv ubsoiugosiu dyslexia gnsivoiun ospgiufmff
gjifoifugbuiiiispiubuiiii iimupppgggfjkvnfjkkkugyyyyyyd
ffigugobii suuufooognbu uiiogpddf jdkkksue iufoiudufiuuuv
fhjkghoihgodiiddbjidbjjsssspshijj nbiiiiiob jejpdoiiibnippi
djiogiiepijgpgij bjieejgdlg jfioofpirjr igupsh hhshfjgioriuosp
fgjiroe irugiegoihu idjjdlgjlekr ootproyiu iigunoifdugnoooo

Visuospatial test 2

Ghetdgsjsjkocnc jdkfybjs kallfyebyuvpy;skdhhfhllhjvhblf
hjklllyb ddsd fybp ppvuiy bpxicvjj;sgdiubguiduv;xk
jjhkjhu yvbyus ifybuifuye rbwprgyxvfjkslvinsouvnossssspf
djifdodi ugbuiv ubsoiugosiu dyslexia gnsivoiun ospgiufmff
gjifoifugbuiiiispiubuiiii iimupppgggfjkvnfjkkkugyyyyyyd
ffigugobii suuufooognbu uiiogpddf jdkkksue iufoiudufiuuuv
fhjkghoihgodiiddbjidbjjsssspshijj nbiiiiiob jejpdoiiibnippi
djiogiiepijgpgij bjieejgdlg jfioofpirjr igupsh hhshfjgioriuosp
fgjiroe irugiegoihu idjjdlgjlekr ootproyiu iigunoifdugnoooo

Visuospatial test 3

Ghetdgsjsjkocnc jdkfybjs kallfyebyuvpy;skdhhfhllhjvhblf
hjklllyb ddsd fybp ppvuiy bpxicvjj;sgdiubguiduv;xk
jjhkjhu yvbyus ifybuifuye rbwprgyxvfjkslvinsouvnossssspf
djifdodi ugbuiv ubsoiugosiu gnsivoiun ospgiufmff
gjifoifugbui iiispiubuiiii iimupppgggfjk vnfjkkkugyyyyyyd
ffigugobii suu dyslexia ufooognbu uiiogpddf jdkkksue iufoiu
fhjkghoihgodiiddbjidbjjsssspshijj nbiiiiiob jejpdoiiibnippi
djiogiiepijgpgij bjieejgdlg jfioofpirjr igupsh hhshfjgioriuosp
fgjiroe irugiegoihu idjjdlgjlekr ootproyiu iigunoifdugnoooo

Therapy

  • Visual Perceptual training
  • Ace reader
  • Visual search task
  • Ann arbor word tracking
  • Letter and word searches
  • Lets look
  • Perceptuo-motor programme
  • Davinci
  • Simon
  • Eidetic programme
  • Eye track
  • Glasses
  • Vision Therapy/ Orthoptic Treatment to improve co-ordination and focusing
  • Coloured overlays / precision tinted lenses
  • Tracking and eye movement treatment
  • Perceptual training
  • Auditory training
  • Combination of paper and computer exercises are used.

Principles involved in training vision

  • the basic principle in any rehabilitation exercise is repetition. The idea is that by repeating certain behaviours. We form new neural networks.
  • Multisensory Reversal programme

Other Therapies

  • Occupational Therapy
  • Sensory Integration Therapy
  • Multi-sensory learning
  • One to One teaching
  • Perceptual training, pegboards, flashcards, dominoes, playing cards, visual search tasks
  • Braingym

Visuospatial memory strategies

  • Position in classroom
  • Positioning of copy material
  • Games practice
  • Search games
  • OT and physiotherapy
  • Jigsaws etc